Laboratory Manual for Human Anatomy & Physiology Main Version 4th Edition
TO THE STUDENT
The exercises in this laboratory manual will provide you with opportunities to observe various anatomical structures and to investigate certain physiological phenomena. Such experiences should help you relate specimens, models, microscope slides, and your body to what you have learned in the lecture and read about in the textbook.
Frequent variations exist in anatomical structures among humans. The illustrations in the laboratory manual represent normal (normal means the most common varia-tion) anatomy. Variations from normal anatomy do not rep-resent abnormal anatomy unless some function is impaired.
The following list of suggestions and study skills may make your laboratory activities more effective and profitable.
1. Prepare yourself before attending the laboratory ses-sion by reading the assigned exercise and reviewing the related sections of the textbook and lecture notes as indicated in the pre-lab section of the laboratory exercise. Answer the pre-lab questions. It is important to have some understanding of what will be done in the lab before you come to class.
2. Be on time. During the first few minutes of the labora-tory meeting, the instructor often will provide verbal instructions. Make special note of any changes in mate-rials to be used or procedures to be followed. Also listen carefully for information about special techniques to be used and precautions to be taken.
3. Keep your work area clean and your materials neatly arranged so that you can locate needed items. This will enable you to proceed efficiently and will reduce the chances of making mistakes.
4. Pay particular attention to the purpose of the exercise, which states what you are to accomplish in general terms, and to the learning outcomes, which list what you should be able to do as a result of the laboratory experience. Then, before you leave the class, review the outcomes and make sure that you can perform all of the assessments.
5. Precisely follow the directions in the procedure and proceed only when you understand them clearly. Do not improvise procedures unless you have the approval of the laboratory instructor. Ask questions if you do not understand exactly what you are supposed to do and why you are doing it.
6. Handle all laboratory materials with care. Some of the materials are fragile and expensive to replace. When-ever you have questions about the proper treatment of equipment, ask the instructor.
7. Treat all living specimens humanely and try to mini-mize any discomfort they might experience.
8. Although at times you might work with a laboratory partner or a small group, try to remain independent when you are making observations, drawing conclusions, and completing the activities in the laboratory reports.
9. Record your observations immediately after making them. In most cases, such data can be entered in spaces provided in the laboratory assessments.
10. Read the instructions for each section of the laboratory assessment before you begin to complete it. Think about the questions before you answer them. Your responses should be based on logical reasoning and phrased in clear and concise language.
11. At the end of each laboratory period, clean your work area and the instruments you have used. Return all materials to their proper places and dispose of wastes, including glassware or microscope slides that have become contaminated with human blood or body fluids, as directed by the laboratory instruc-tor. Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory.
Study Skills for Anatomy and Physiology
Students have found that certain study skills worked well for them while enrolled in Human Anatomy and Physiology. Although everyone has his or her learning style, there are techniques that work well for most students. Using some of the skills listed here can make your course more enjoyable and rewarding.
1. Time management: Prepare monthly, weekly, and daily schedules. Include dates of quizzes, exams, and projects on the calendar. On your daily schedule, budget several short study periods. Daily repetition alleviates cramming. Prioritize your tasks so that you still have time for work and leisure activities. Find an appropriate study atmosphere with minimum distractions.
2. Note taking: Look for the main ideas and briefly express them in your own words. Organize, edit, and review your notes soon after the lecture. Add text-book information to your notes as you reorganize them. Underline or highlight with different colors the impor-tant points, major headings, and key terms. Study your notes daily, as they provide sequential building blocks of the course content.
3. Chunking: Organize information into logical groups or categories. Study and master one chunk of information at a time. For example, study the bones of the upper limb, lower limb, trunk, and head as separate study tasks.
4. Mnemonic devices: An acrostic is a combination of association and imagery to aid your memory. It is often in the form of a poem, rhyme, or jingle in which the first letter of each word corresponds to the first letters of the words you need to remember. So Long Top Part, Here Comes The Thumb is an example of such a mnemonic device for remembering the eight carpals in a correct sequence. Acronyms are words formed by the first letters of the items to remem-ber. IPMAT is an example of this type of mnemonic device to help you remember the phases of the cell cycle in the correct sequence. Try to create some of your own.
5. Note cards/flash cards: Make your own. Add labels and colors to enhance the material. Keep them with you; study them often and for short periods. Concen-trate on a small number of cards at one time. Shuffle your cards and have someone quiz you on their con-tent. As you become familiar with the material, you can set aside cards that don’t require additional mastery.
6. Recording and recitation: An auditory learner can benefit by recording lectures and review sessions with a cassette recorder. Many students listen to the taped sessions as they drive or just before going to bed. Reading your notes aloud can help also. Explain the material to anyone (even if there are no listen-ers). Talk about anatomy and physiology in everyday conversations.
7. Study groups: Small study groups that meet periodi-cally to review course material and compare notes have helped and encouraged many students. However, keep the group on the task at hand. Work as a team and alternate leaders. This group often becomes a support group.
The Use of Animals in Biology Education*
The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) believes that the study of organisms, including nonhuman animals, is essential to the understanding of life on Earth. NABT recom-mends the prudent and responsible use of animals in the life science classroom. NABT believes that biology teachers should foster a respect for life. Biology teachers also should teach about the interrelationship and interdependency of all things.
Classroom experiences that involve nonhuman animals range from observation to dissection. NABT supports these experiences so long as they are conducted within the long-established guidelines of proper care and use of animals, as developed by the scientific and educational community.
As with any instructional activity, the use of nonhuman animals in the biology classroom must have sound educa-tional objectives. Any use of animals, whether for observa-tion or dissection, must convey substantive knowledge of biology. NABT believes that biology teachers are in the best position to make this determination for their students.
NABT acknowledges that no alternative can substitute for the actual experience of dissection or other use of animals and urges teachers to be aware of the limitations of alterna-tives. When the teacher determines that the most effective means to meet the objectives of the class do not require dis-section, NABT accepts the use of alternatives to dissection, including models and the various forms of multimedia. The Association encourages teachers to be sensitive to substan-tive student objections to dissection and to consider provid-ing appropriate lessons for those students where necessary.
To implement this policy, NABT endorses and adopts the “Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Precollege Education” of the Institute of Laboratory Animals Resources (National Research Council). Copies of the “Principles and Guidelines” may be obtained from the ILAR (2101 Constitu-tion Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418; 202-334-2590).
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