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Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 4th Edition



Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 4th Edition PDF

Author: Donald C Rizzo

Publisher: Cengage Learning

Genres:

Publish Date: March 20, 2015

ISBN-10: 1285174151

Pages: 576

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

TO THE LEARNER

Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, Fourth Edition, was written and  designed for learners pursuing careers in the allied health fields. It is written in  clear, concise, and easily understandable scientific language and presupposes  no previous biology exposure. This text will guide you along a journey of  understanding how the human body operates on a daily basis from birth to  death. The writing style and presentation will assist introductory learners  with limited backgrounds in the sciences to comprehend the basic concepts of  human anatomy and physiology, and the fascinating working mechanisms of our bodies. Several features are incorporated into each chapter to help you master the content.  Review the “How to Use This Book” section on page xxiii for a detailed description and  benefit of each feature.

Organization of the Text Introductory Chapters

The text begins with an introduction to the human body, explaining anatomic terms  and the organization of the body from the cellular to the tissue level, how tissues form  organs and how organs comprise the various systems of the body. The chemical basis  of life is covered in Chapter 2, explaining how elements bond to form molecules like  carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids, which are the building blocks of cellular  structures. After a discussion of the structure and functions of cells in Chapter 3, Chapter 4  explains how cells convert the foods we eat, via metabolism, into a new form of cellular  chemical energy, ATP. This chapter also discusses how cells divide by mitosis, how we  pass on our genetic characteristics by meiosis, and the structure of the DNA molecule.
After this thorough yet understandable explanation of how cells operate, Chapter 5  describes the anatomy and function of body tissues.

Body System Chapters

Having laid the groundwork for understanding the cellular and tissue levels of organization  of the body, the text takes the student on a journey through the various systems of the  body. Each system chapter has an introduction to set the stage for explaining in general  terms what the system does and the organs it contains. Each organ is discussed in terms  of its anatomy and physiology, beginning with the first organ and concluding with the  final organ of that system. Beginning on the outside, the first system discussed is the  integumentary system in Chapter 6. The skeletal (Chapter 7), articular (Chapter 8), and  muscular (Chapter 9) systems are discussed next. These systems operate closely together  to allow us to move and respond to changes in our external environment.
The nervous system (Chapters 10 and 11) controls and integrates all other body  systems. Chapter 12 discusses the endocrine system, which operates very closely with  the nervous system in the chemical control of the body through hormones, helping to  maintain the body’s internal environment, or homeostasis.
Donald C. Rizzo, PhD
Professor Emeritus
Marygrove College
Detroit, Michigan
Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 13 focuses on the blood and begins the discussion of systems that transport  materials through the body. Chapter 14 covers the cardiovascular circulatory system, which  transports the blood that carries oxygen and nutrients to the body cells, as well as eliminates  waste from the body cells. The lymphatic circulatory system (Chapter 15) transports fats  from the digestive tract to the blood and develops immunities to protect the body from  disease. Chapter 16 covers nutrition and the digestive system, which converts the food we  eat into a usable form for use by body cells. The respiratory system, which brings in oxygen  gas to the body and eliminates carbon dioxide gas, a waste product of cellular metabolism,  is discussed in Chapter 17. The urinary system, which filters our blood 60 times a day of the  many wastes and excesses that the body does not need, is covered in Chapter 18.
The final chapter of the text is the reproductive system. This system allows us to  propagate our species and to pass on our genetic characteristics to our offspring.
Key Features
Key features retained in the Fourth Edition include:
■ Photomicrographs paired with illustrations in Chapter 5 present complete anatomical  detail of tissues in the body.
■ Concept Maps section illustrates the connections between anatomy and physiology of  the organs of each body system.
■ Body Systems Working Together section illustrates each body system’s role in  maintaining homeostasis and emphasizes the integration of separate systems into  one body.
■ Overviews of common diseases, disorders, or conditions specific to each body system.
■ Laboratory exercises provide hands-on experience in the lab to observe structures.
■ As the Body Ages section considers physiological changes and effects aging has on  body systems.
■ Career Focus section explores potential careers related to body systems.
■ Search and Explore section expands learning beyond the text with Internet or human  interest assignments.
■ Case Studies encourage synthesis of key concepts learned in the chapter.

Changes to the Fourth Edition
■ New full-color illustrations and photos to visually reinforce anatomical structures and  physiology.
■ New photos of actual human bones in Chapters 7 and 8 are paired side-by-side with  illustrations. Students observe details of bone structure in the illustrations and are then  able to compare with photos of actual bones.
■ Online Resources section directs students to study tools such as PowerPoint® slides and anatomy and physiology animations on the Student Companion Website.
Chapter-Specific Changes chapter 1: the human body
■ New illustration on negative feedback and body temperature was added. chapter 4: cellular metabolism and reproduction: mitosis and meiosis
■ A discussion on the disease Progeria was added. chapter 5: tissues
■ All new photomicrographs were paired with illustrations to present complete  anatomical details of tissues.

Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. chapter 6: the integumentary system
■ Expanded discussion on sebaceous glands was added.
■ Expanded discussion on thermoregulation was added.
■ New illustration showing cross section of a hair and hair follicle was added. chapter 7: the skeletal system
■ New photos of actual human bones, paired side-by-side with illustrations, were added.
■ New illustration showing osteoblast cells producing ossification in cartilage was added.
■ New illustration showing intramembranous ossification was added.
■ New illustration showing the inferior view of skull bones was added. chapter 8: the articular system
■ New illustration showing a syndesmosis joint between the radius and ulna bones was  added.
■ New illustration showing examples of synchondroses joints, a pelvic bone and the  sternum and sternocostal cartilages, was added. chapter 9: the muscular system
■ Expanded discussion on the naming and actions of skeletal muscles was added.
■ Expanded discussion on the muscles of facial expression was added. chapter 10: the nervous system: introduction, spinal cord, and spinal nerves
■ New illustration of a bipolar neuron producing a fatty myelin sheath outside of the  central nervous system was added.
■ New illustration of a Schwann cell was added.
■ New illustration of an oligodendrocyte producing a fatty myelin sheath on axons in the  central nervous system was added. chapter 11: the nervous system: the brain, cranial nerves, autonomic nervous  system, and the special senses
■ Expanded discussion on anatomy of the eye was added.
■ New discussion on the disorder vertigo was added. chapter 14: the cardiovascular circulatory system
■ New illustration illustrating a cardiac cycle was added.
■ New discussion on cerebral circulation was added. chapter 15: the lymphatic circulatory system
■ New discussion on the vermiform appendix was added. chapter 16: nutrition and the digestive system
■ New illustration of the MyPlate icon was added.
■ New discussion on the MyPlate dietary guidelines was added.
■ New health alert on the importance of vitamins in our diets was added. chapter 17: the respiratory system
■ Expanded discussion on the anatomy and function of the lungs was added. chapter 19: the reproductive system
■ New labels were added to the organs and ducts of the male reproductive system


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