Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 4th Edition
TO THE LEARNER
Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, Fourth Edition, was written and designed for learners pursuing careers in the allied health fields. It is written in clear, concise, and easily understandable scientific language and presupposes no previous biology exposure. This text will guide you along a journey of understanding how the human body operates on a daily basis from birth to death. The writing style and presentation will assist introductory learners with limited backgrounds in the sciences to comprehend the basic concepts of human anatomy and physiology, and the fascinating working mechanisms of our bodies. Several features are incorporated into each chapter to help you master the content. Review the “How to Use This Book” section on page xxiii for a detailed description and benefit of each feature.
Organization of the Text Introductory Chapters
The text begins with an introduction to the human body, explaining anatomic terms and the organization of the body from the cellular to the tissue level, how tissues form organs and how organs comprise the various systems of the body. The chemical basis of life is covered in Chapter 2, explaining how elements bond to form molecules like carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids, which are the building blocks of cellular structures. After a discussion of the structure and functions of cells in Chapter 3, Chapter 4 explains how cells convert the foods we eat, via metabolism, into a new form of cellular chemical energy, ATP. This chapter also discusses how cells divide by mitosis, how we pass on our genetic characteristics by meiosis, and the structure of the DNA molecule.
After this thorough yet understandable explanation of how cells operate, Chapter 5 describes the anatomy and function of body tissues.
Body System Chapters
Having laid the groundwork for understanding the cellular and tissue levels of organization of the body, the text takes the student on a journey through the various systems of the body. Each system chapter has an introduction to set the stage for explaining in general terms what the system does and the organs it contains. Each organ is discussed in terms of its anatomy and physiology, beginning with the first organ and concluding with the final organ of that system. Beginning on the outside, the first system discussed is the integumentary system in Chapter 6. The skeletal (Chapter 7), articular (Chapter 8), and muscular (Chapter 9) systems are discussed next. These systems operate closely together to allow us to move and respond to changes in our external environment.
The nervous system (Chapters 10 and 11) controls and integrates all other body systems. Chapter 12 discusses the endocrine system, which operates very closely with the nervous system in the chemical control of the body through hormones, helping to maintain the body’s internal environment, or homeostasis.
Donald C. Rizzo, PhD
Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. Chapter 13 focuses on the blood and begins the discussion of systems that transport materials through the body. Chapter 14 covers the cardiovascular circulatory system, which transports the blood that carries oxygen and nutrients to the body cells, as well as eliminates waste from the body cells. The lymphatic circulatory system (Chapter 15) transports fats from the digestive tract to the blood and develops immunities to protect the body from disease. Chapter 16 covers nutrition and the digestive system, which converts the food we eat into a usable form for use by body cells. The respiratory system, which brings in oxygen gas to the body and eliminates carbon dioxide gas, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is discussed in Chapter 17. The urinary system, which filters our blood 60 times a day of the many wastes and excesses that the body does not need, is covered in Chapter 18.
The final chapter of the text is the reproductive system. This system allows us to propagate our species and to pass on our genetic characteristics to our offspring.
Key features retained in the Fourth Edition include:
■ Photomicrographs paired with illustrations in Chapter 5 present complete anatomical detail of tissues in the body.
■ Concept Maps section illustrates the connections between anatomy and physiology of the organs of each body system.
■ Body Systems Working Together section illustrates each body system’s role in maintaining homeostasis and emphasizes the integration of separate systems into one body.
■ Overviews of common diseases, disorders, or conditions specific to each body system.
■ Laboratory exercises provide hands-on experience in the lab to observe structures.
■ As the Body Ages section considers physiological changes and effects aging has on body systems.
■ Career Focus section explores potential careers related to body systems.
■ Search and Explore section expands learning beyond the text with Internet or human interest assignments.
■ Case Studies encourage synthesis of key concepts learned in the chapter.
Changes to the Fourth Edition
■ New full-color illustrations and photos to visually reinforce anatomical structures and physiology.
■ New photos of actual human bones in Chapters 7 and 8 are paired side-by-side with illustrations. Students observe details of bone structure in the illustrations and are then able to compare with photos of actual bones.
■ Online Resources section directs students to study tools such as PowerPoint® slides and anatomy and physiology animations on the Student Companion Website.
Chapter-Specific Changes chapter 1: the human body
■ New illustration on negative feedback and body temperature was added. chapter 4: cellular metabolism and reproduction: mitosis and meiosis
■ A discussion on the disease Progeria was added. chapter 5: tissues
■ All new photomicrographs were paired with illustrations to present complete anatomical details of tissues.
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. chapter 6: the integumentary system
■ Expanded discussion on sebaceous glands was added.
■ Expanded discussion on thermoregulation was added.
■ New illustration showing cross section of a hair and hair follicle was added. chapter 7: the skeletal system
■ New photos of actual human bones, paired side-by-side with illustrations, were added.
■ New illustration showing osteoblast cells producing ossification in cartilage was added.
■ New illustration showing intramembranous ossification was added.
■ New illustration showing the inferior view of skull bones was added. chapter 8: the articular system
■ New illustration showing a syndesmosis joint between the radius and ulna bones was added.
■ New illustration showing examples of synchondroses joints, a pelvic bone and the sternum and sternocostal cartilages, was added. chapter 9: the muscular system
■ Expanded discussion on the naming and actions of skeletal muscles was added.
■ Expanded discussion on the muscles of facial expression was added. chapter 10: the nervous system: introduction, spinal cord, and spinal nerves
■ New illustration of a bipolar neuron producing a fatty myelin sheath outside of the central nervous system was added.
■ New illustration of a Schwann cell was added.
■ New illustration of an oligodendrocyte producing a fatty myelin sheath on axons in the central nervous system was added. chapter 11: the nervous system: the brain, cranial nerves, autonomic nervous system, and the special senses
■ Expanded discussion on anatomy of the eye was added.
■ New discussion on the disorder vertigo was added. chapter 14: the cardiovascular circulatory system
■ New illustration illustrating a cardiac cycle was added.
■ New discussion on cerebral circulation was added. chapter 15: the lymphatic circulatory system
■ New discussion on the vermiform appendix was added. chapter 16: nutrition and the digestive system
■ New illustration of the MyPlate icon was added.
■ New discussion on the MyPlate dietary guidelines was added.
■ New health alert on the importance of vitamins in our diets was added. chapter 17: the respiratory system
■ Expanded discussion on the anatomy and function of the lungs was added. chapter 19: the reproductive system
■ New labels were added to the organs and ducts of the male reproductive system
|Download Ebook||Read Now||File Type||Upload Date|
|September 30, 2021|