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General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry 5th Edition


Author: H. Stephen Stoker

Publisher: Brooks Cole Pub


Publish Date: 2009


Pages: Pages

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

The positive responses of instructors and students who used the previous four editions of this text have been gratifying—and have lead to the new fi fth edition that you hold in your hands. This new edition represents a renewed commitment to the goals I initially set out to meet when writing the fi rst edition. These goals have not changed with the passage of time. My initial and still ongoing goals are to write a text in which

The needs are simultaneously met for the many students in the fi elds of nursing, allied health, biological sciences, agricultural sciences, food sciences, and public health who are required to take such a course.

The development of chemical topics always starts out at ground level. The students who will use this text often have little or no background in chemistry and hence approach the course with a good deal of trepidation. This “ground level” approach addresses this situation.

The amount and level of mathematics is purposefully restricted. Clearly, some chemical principles cannot be divorced entirely from mathematics and, when this is the case, appropriate mathematical coverage is included.

The early chapters focus on fundamental chemical principles and the later chapters, built on these principles, develop the concepts and applications central to the fields of organic chemistry and biochemistry.

FOCUS ON BIOCHEMISTRY Most students taking this course have a greater interest in the biochemistry portion of the course than the preceding two parts. But biochemistry, of course, cannot be understood without a knowledge of the fundamentals of organic chemistry, and understanding organic chemistry in turn depends on knowing the key concepts of general chemistry. Thus, in writing this text, I essentially started from the back and worked forward. I began by determining what topics would be considered in the biochemistry chapters and then tailored the organic and then general sections to support that presentation. Users of the previous editions confi rm that this approach ensures an efficient but thorough coverage of the principles needed to understand biochemistry.

EMPHASIS ON VISUAL SUPPORT I believe strongly in visual reinforcement of key concepts in a textbook; thus, this book uses art and photos wherever possible to teach key concepts. Artwork is used to make connections and highlight what is important for the student to know. Reaction equations use color to emphasize the portions of a molecule that undergo change. Colors are likewise assigned to things like valence shells and classes of compounds to help students follow trends. Computer-generated, three dimensional molecular models accompany many discussions in the organic and biochemistry sections of the text. Color photographs show applications of chemistry to help make concepts real and more readily remembered.

Visual summary features, called Chemistry at a Glance, pull together material from several sections of a chapter to help students see the larger picture. For example, Chapter 3 features a Chemistry at a Glance on the shell–subshell–orbital interrelationships; Chapter 10 presents buffer solutions; Chapter 13 includes IUPAC nomenclature for alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes; and Chapter 22 summarizes DNA replication. The Chemistry at a Glance feature serves both as an overview for the student reading the material for the first time and as a review tool for the student preparing for exams. Given the popularity of the Chemistry at a Glance summaries in the previous editions, several new ones have been added and several existing ones have been updated or expanded. New topics selected for Chemistry at a Glance boxes include

Acid–base definitions

Structural representations for alkanes
Structural characteristics and naming of alcohols, thiols, ethers, and thioethers
Structural components of nucleic acids

Brief Contents
Preface xiv
Chapter 1 Basic Concepts About Matter 1
Chapter 2 Measurements in Chemistry 22
Chapter 3 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table 51
Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding: The Ionic Bond Model 83
Chapter 5 Chemical Bonding: The Covalent Bond Model 108
Chapter 6 Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles, and Chemical Equations 137
Chapter 7 Gases, Liquids and Solids 163
Chapter 8 Solutions 192
Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions 223
Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts 253
Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry 292
Chapter 12 Saturated Hydrocarbons 321
Chapter 13 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 361
Chapter 14 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers 399
Chapter 15 Aldehydes and Ketones 442
Chapter 16 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Other Acid Derivatives 473
Chapter 17 Amines and Amides 514
Chapter 18 Carbohydrates 555
Chapter 19 Lipids 608
Chapter 20 Proteins 655
Chapter 21 Enzymes and Vitamins 698
Chapter 22 Nucleic Acids 734
Chapter 23 Biochemical Energy Production 777
Chapter 24 Carbohydrate Metabolism 811
Chapter 25 Lipid Metabolism 842
Chapter 26 Protein Metabolism 875
Answers to Selected Exercises A-1
Photo Credits A-26
Index/Glossary A-27

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