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The Encyclopedia of Lost and Rejected Scriptures: The Pseudepigrapha and Apocrypha

The Encyclopedia of Lost and Rejected Scriptures: The Pseudepigrapha and Apocrypha PDF

Author: Joseph B. Lumpkin

Publisher: ‎ Fifth Estate


Publish Date: May 22, 2015

ISBN-10: 1936533553

Pages: 826

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

The study of scripture is a lifelong venture. Many times our search for deeper understanding of the holy book leads to
questions beyond the Bible itself. As we encounter references to social conditions, cultural practices, and even other writings
mentioned within the scriptures we are called to investigate and expand our knowledge in order to fully appreciate the
context, knowledge base, and cultural significance of what is being taught. Thus, to fully understand the Bible, we are
necessarily drawn to sources outside the Bible. These sources add to the historical, social, or theological understanding of
Biblical times. As our view becomes more macrocosmic, we see the panoramic setting and further understand the full truth
within the scriptures.

To point us to the sources we should be concerned with, we must know which books were popular and important at the time.
There are several books mentioned in the Bible, which are not included in the Bible. They are not spiritual canon, either
because they were not available at the time the canon was originally adopted, or at the time they were not considered
“inspired.” In cases when inspiration was questioned, one could argue that any book quoted or mentioned by a prophet or an
apostle should be considered as spiritual canon, unfortunately this position would prove too simplistic.
Books and writings can fall under various categories such as civil records and laws, historical documents, or spiritual
writings. A city or state census is not inspired, but it could add insight into certain areas of life. Spiritual writings which are
directly quoted in the Bible serve as insights into the beliefs of the writer or what was considered acceptable by society at the
time. As with any new discovery, invention, or belief, the new is interpreted based upon the structure of what came before.
This was the way in the first century Christian church as beliefs were based upon the old Jewish understanding. Although,
one should realize pagan beliefs were also added to the church as non-Jewish populations were converted, bringing with
them the foundations of their beliefs on which they interpreted Christianity. In the case of Jude, James, Paul, and others, the
Jewish past was giving way to the Christian present but their understanding and doctrine were still being influenced by what
they had learned and experienced previously. It becomes obvious that to understand the Bible one should endeavor to
investigate the books and doctrines that most influenced the writers of the Bible. Some of these doctrines evolved to become
today’s faith. Some diverged and competed as with orthodox doctrine, other simply faded away.
The Dead Sea Scrolls found in the caves of Qumran are of great interest in the venture of clarifying the history and doctrine in
existence between biblical times and the fixing of canon. The scrolls were penned in the second century B.C. and were in use
at least until the destruction of the second temple in 70 A.D. Similar scrolls to those found in the eleven caves of Qumran
were also found at the Masada stronghold which fell in 73 A.D. Fragments of every book of the Old Testament except Esther
were found in the caves of Qumran, but so were many other books. Some of these books are considered to have been of equal
importance and influence to the people of Qumran and to the writers and scholars of the time. Some of those studying the
scrolls found in Qumran were the writers of the New Testament.

Knowing this, one might ask which of the dozens of non-canonical books most influenced the writers of the New Testament.
It is possible to ascertain the existence of certain influences within the Bible context by using the Bible itself. The Bible can
direct us to other works in three ways. The work can be mentioned by name, as is the Book of Jasher. The work can be quoted
within the Bible text, as is the case with the Book of Enoch. The existence of a work can be alluded to, as is the case of the
missing letter from the apostle Paul to the Corinthians.

In the case of those books named in the Bible, one can set a list as the titles are named. The list isllengthier than one might at
first suspect. Most of these works have not been found. Some have been unearthed but their authenticity is questioned.
Others have been found and the link between scripture and scroll is generally accepted. Following is a list of books
mentioned in the Holy Bible.

The Book of Jasher: There are two references to the book in the Old Testament:
2 Samuel 1:18 – Behold, it is written in the Book of Jasher. “So the sun stood still” and the moon stopped, until the nations
avenged themselves of their enemies.”
Joshua 10:13 – Is it not written in the Book of Jasher? And the sun stopped in the middle of the sky and did not hasten to go
down for about a whole day.

There are several books which have come to us entitled, “Book of Jasher.” One is an ethical treatise from the Middle Ages. It
begins with a section on the Mystery of the Creation of the World: It is clearly unrelated to the Biblical Book of Jasher.

The Encyclopedia of Lost and Rejected Scriptures
Another was published in 1829 supposedly translated by Flaccus Albinus AIcuinus. It opens with the Chapter 1 Verse 1
reading: “While it was the beginning, darkness overspread the face of nature.” It is now considered a fake.
The third and most important is by Midrash, first translated into English in 1840. It opens with Chapter 1 Verse 1 reading:
“And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and God created man in his own image.” A comparison of
Joshua 10:13 with Jasher 88:63-64 and 2Sam. 1:18 with Jasher 56:9 makes it clear that this Book of Jasher at least follows close
enough with the Bible to be the Book of Jasher mentioned in the Bible.

Other books mentioned by name in the Bible are:
1. The Book of Wars of the Lord: “Therefore it is said in the Book of the Wars of the Lord.”�Num. 21:14
2. The Annals of Jehu: “Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, first to last, behold, they are written in the annals of
Jehu the son of Hanani, which is recorded in the Book of the Kings of Israel.” 2 Chronicles 20:34
3. The treatise of the Book of the Kings: “As to his sons and the many oracles against him and the rebuilding of the
house of God, behold, they are written in the treatise of the Book of the Kings. Then Amaziah his son became king in his
place.” 2 Chronicles 24:27
4. The Book of Records, Book of the Chronicles of Ahasuerus: “Now when the plot was investigated and found to be
so, they were both hanged on a gallows; and it was written in the Book of the Chronicles in the king’s presence.” ‘” “During
that night the king could not sleep so he gave an order to bring the book of records, the chronicles, and they were read before
the king.” Esther 2:23; 6:1
5. The Acts of Solomon: “Now the rest of the acts of Solomon and whatever he did, and his wisdom, are they not
written in the book of the Acts of Solomon?” 1 Kings 11:41
6. The Sayings of Hozai: “His prayer also and how God was entreated by him, and all his sin, his unfaithfulness, and
the sites on which he built high places and erected the Asherim and the carved images, before he humbled himself, behold,
they are written in the records of the Hozai.” 2 Chronicles 33:19
7. The Chronicles of David: “Joab the son of Zeruiah had begun to count them, but did not finish; and because of this,
wrath came upon Israel, and the number was not included in the account of the Chronicles of King David.” 1 Chronicles 27:24
8. The Chronicles of Samuel, Nathan, Gad: “Now the acts of King David, from first to last, are written in the Chronicles
of Samuel the seer, in the Chronicles of Nathan the prophet and in the Chronicles of Gad the seer.” 1 Chronicles 29:29
9. Samuel’s book: “Then Samuel told the people the ordinances of the kingdom, and wrote them in the book and
placed it before the Lord.” 1 Samuel 10:25
10. The Records of Nathan the prophet: “Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, from first to last, are they not written in
the Records of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Iddo the seer concerning
Jeroboam the son of Nebat?” 2 Chronicles 9:29
11. The Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite: “Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, from first to last, are they not written in
the Records of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Iddo the seer concerning
Jeroboam the son of Nebat?” 2 Chronicles 9:29
12. The Treatise of the Prophet Iddo: “Now the rest of the acts of Abijah, and his ways and his words are written in the
treatise of the prophet Iddo.” 2 Chronicles 13:22
13. The Book Of Jasher: “Is it not written in the book of Jasher? 2 Samuel 1:18 and Joshua 10:13
The existence of a book can be inferred as well, this is clearly seen with several missing epistles. Paul’s letter to the church at
Laodicea: “When this letter is read among you, have it also read in the church of the Laodiceans; and you, for your part read
my letter that is coming from Laodicea.” Colossians 4:16 (Since three earlier manuscripts do not contain the words “at
Ephesus” in Eph 1:1, some have speculated that the letter coming from Laodicea was in fact the letter of Ephesians. Apostolic
fathers also debated this possibility.) In Paul’s first letter to Corinth, he predated that letter by saying: “I wrote you in my
letter not to associate with immoral people” (1 Corinthians 5:9) (This could merely be a reference to the present letter of 1

Many lost books have been discovered. Some books are considered to be part of the Apocrypha, while others are considered
to be part of the Pseudepigrapha. The difference between the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha is at times a matter of opinion.
Strictly speaking, the Pseudepigrapha are religious books, most of which were written between 200 B.C. and 200 A.D., which
have authorship falsely attributed to a another person, usually a well known saint or patriarch. The Apocrypha refers to a
body of hidden or esoteric work of questionable authenticity. It is the purpose of this work to bring into light the treasure
trove of books attributed to both the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. Here are over forty of the most sought after books
written in the most ancient of times.

The Encyclopedia of Lost and Rejected Scriptures
When reading through this tome and comparing book to book, it will be noticed that books in this volume are laid
out in a slightly different style when compared to the one before or after. It was hoped that the variety would provide each
reader with a preferred presentation.

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