Dimensional Analysis for Meds: Refocusing on Essential Metric Calculations: Refocusing on Essential Metric Calculations 6th Edition
Book Preface
A preface is an introduction written by an author to explain her or his text’s content. I welcome the opportunity to do this for the sixth edition of Dimensional Analysis for Meds.
The most important content in this edition remains Chapter 1, Introduction to the Metric System, the system in which 98% of dosages are ordered. Concentrating heavily on common metric dosages, while not forgetting the other measures that are less frequently ordered, the text starts by providing many onestep dosages that can be calculated mentally. These include both oral and parenteral (injectable) solution dosages. Detailed instruction in hypodermic syringe measurements is provided to allow reallife measurement of calculated parenteral dosages.
The decision to teach dimensional analysis as the ONLY calculation method is deliberate, because it is the only method that reduces multiplestep clinical calculations to a single, easytosolve equation. Manual refresher math is limited to that which is specifically required for dimensional analysis. Calculator use throughout the text is recommended. The bulk of dosagerelated calculations of necessity must and will be learned in clinical practice following graduation. In this edition everything necessary to make the transition to clinical learning has been covered.
This edition has a second dominating focus: the elimination of all content unrelated to the specific objectives of basic math instruction. As an author, I plead guilty to unrealistically seeking to include everything possible in clinical math concepts, even when it took the content beyond basic objectives. A primary example was to include dosage calculations that are the sole responsibility of pharmacists and physicians. The renewed focus on basic math instruction in this edition has resulted in a smaller text than the fifth edition, and we are proud of eliminating so much unnecessary content. Essential learnings in refresher math and clinical calculations do not require a 2 to 2.5inchthick text. Several such oversized texts are currently in publication, and we hope that other authors will follow our lead and reduce content to only that which is absolutely necessary.
The majority of drugs, both in the clinical hospital setting and at your local pharmacy, are measured in metric dosages. Milligrams, abbreviated mg, will be a familiar dosage strength.
The metric system was invented in France in 1875 as the Systeme International (SI). Both the U.S. and Canada legislated the metric system in 1975, but only Canada went totally metric. The result is that the U.S. still uses gallons for volume, miles rather than kilometers for distance, and pounds and ounces instead of grams for weight.
Thankfully, however, the metric system was widely adopted very early in clinical medicine, and it is such a logical system that you are going to find it very easy to learn and use.
The metric is a decimal system, in which all units of measure for weight, volume, and length relate to each other.
The fact that the metric is a decimal system is incredibly important in dosage calculations because dosages can be changed from one measure to the next simply by moving a decimal point. However, anything involving decimals raises a red flag for caution, and we will address that necessity.
Both the U.S. and Canadian monetary systems of dollars and cents are decimal systems.
So, since you know how to count money, you already know how to recognize the value of decimal numbers in drug dosages. That said, a quick refresher in the relative value of decimal numbers seen in dosages is the logical place to start your introduction to the metric system.
CONTENTS
Preface
Letter for the Learner
Instructor Guidelines
Pretest
SECTION 1The Metric System and Additional Drug Measures
CHAPTER 1The Metric System in Clinical Medicine
Introduction
Relative Value of Decimal Numbers
Basic Units of the Metric System
Metric Prefixes
Metric Abbreviations
Metric Notation Rules
Conversion Between Metric Measures
Converting Metric Measures
Summary
Summary SelfTest
CHAPTER 2Additional Drug Measures: Units, Percentage, Milliequivalent, Ratio, and Household Measures
Introduction
International Units (units)
Percentage (%)
Milliequivalent (mEq)
Ratio
Household Measures
Summary
Summary SelfTest
SECTION 2Oral Medications, Labels, One Step and Math Dosage Calculations
CHAPTER 3Introduction to Oral Medications, Dosage Labels, and Calculations
Introduction: Types of Oral Medications
Types of Tablets and Capsules
Tablet and Capsule Labels
Tablet and Capsule Dosage Calculation
Oral Solution Dosage Calculation
Administration of Oral Medications
Summary
Summary SelfTest
CHAPTER 4Basic Math Review
Introduction
CommonFraction Math
Expressing to the Nearest Tenth
Expressing to the Nearest Hundredth
CommonFraction Equations
Equations Containing Decimal Fractions
MultipleNumber Equations
Summary
Summary SelfTest
SECTION 3Safe Medication Administration
CHAPTER 5Safe Medication Administration
Introduction
The Six Rights of Medication Administration
Medication Administration Abbreviations
Common Medication Errors
Errors in Writing Metric Dosages
Action Steps When Errors Occur
Summary
Summary SelfTest
SECTION 4Parenteral Dosage Measurement in Hypodermic Syringes
CHAPTER 6Hypodermic Syringe Measurement
Introduction
Standard 3 mL Syringe
Tuberculin (TB) Syringe
5 mL and 10 mL Syringes
20 mL and Larger Syringes
Summary
Summary SelfTest
CHAPTER 7Parenteral Dosage Calculation and Measurement
Introduction
Parenteral Medications Using Metric Measures
Parenteral Medications Percentage (%) Measures
Parenteral Medications Measured as Ratios
Parenteral Medications Measured in Units
Medications Measured in Milliequivalents (mEq)
Summary
Summary SelfTest
SECTION 5Dimensional Analysis (DA) in Clinical Calculations
CHAPTER 8Introduction to Dimensional Analysis
Introduction
Clinical Ratios
SingleStep DA Equations
Calculations Requiring Metric Conversions
Summary
Summary SelfTest
SECTION 6Intravenous Therapy (IV) and Flow Rate Calculation
CHAPTER 9Introduction to IV Therapy
Primary Line
Secondary IV Line
VolumeControlled Burettes
Peripheral Infusion Ports
IV Port Flushes
Electronic/Volumetric Infusion Pumps
Syringe Pumps
PatientControlled Analgesia (PCA) Devices
Introduction to Percentages in IV Solutions
Percentages in IV Solutions
Parenteral Nutrition
Summary
Summary SelfTest
CHAPTER 10IV Flow Rate Calculations
Introduction
IV Tubing Calibration
Reduction of IV Volume Numbers Ending in Zeros
Calculating gtt/min IV Flow Rates
The Formula Method for gtt/min Flow Rate Calculation
The Division Factor Method for gtt/min Flow Rate Calculation
Microdrip IV Set Calculations
Counting and Regulating Flow Rates
Adjusting Flow Rates
Summary
Summary SelfTest
SECTION 7IV Medication and Titration Calculations
CHAPTER 11IV Medication and Titration Calculations
Introduction
Calculating mL/hr Rate for Dosage Ordered
Calculating mL/hr Rate for Dosage per kg Ordered
IV Titration Calculations
Summary
Summary SelfTest
SECTION 8Insulin and Heparin Administration
CHAPTER 12Measuring Insulin Dosages
Introduction
Types of Insulin
Insulin Label Identification
Insulin Action Times
Insulin Syringes
Combining Insulin Dosages
Insulin Injection Sites and Techniques
Insulin Pumps for Type 1 Diabetes
Summary
Summary SelfTest
CHAPTER 13Heparin Subcutaneous Injection and IV Infusion
Introduction
Heparin Vial Labels
Calculating mL/hr Flow Rates for units/hr Ordered
Calculating units/hr Infusing from mL/hr Flow Rate
Heparin Flush Dosage
Summary
Summary SelfTest
SECTION 9Reconstitution of Powdered Drugs
CHAPTER 14Reconstitution of Powdered Drugs
Introduction
Reconstitution of a SingleStrength Solution
Reconstitution Using Drug Package Inserts
Reconstitution of MultipleStrength Solutions
Summary
Summary SelfTest
SECTION 10Body Weight and Body Surface Area in Dosage Calculation
CHAPTER 15Dosage Based on Body Weight and Body Surface Area (BSA)
Introduction
Measuring Body Weight
Converting lb to kg
Converting kg to lb
Calculating Dosages Based on Body Weight from Dosage Labels
Dosage Based on Body Surface Area (BSA)
Formula for Calculating BSA from kg and cm
Formula for Calculating BSA from lb and inches
Use of BSA to Calculate Dosages
Summary
Summary SelfTest
APPENDIXISMP’s List of ErrorProne Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations
Index
Download Ebook  Read Now  File Type  Upload Date 

Download here

Read Now  Epub  September 5, 2022 
How to Read and Open File Type for PC ?