Dimensional Analysis: Calculating Dosages Safely Second Edition
Book Preface
Introduction
The second edition of Dimensional Analysis: Calculating Dosages Safely provides a systematic approach to solving both simple and complex dosage problems. The dimensional analysis method organizes data methodically and allows students to examine developing calculations for errors. It is an ideal method to build conﬁ dence, speed, and competency in dosage calculations. The second edition of this book serves to correct the errors contained within the ﬁ rst edition, address electronic documentation, and update safety information.
This text also emphasizes safe medication practices. Although accuracy in calculating dosages is extremely important, healthcare providers who administer medications also need to be able to read drug labels, interpret medication orders, apply principles of safe drug administration to their practice, document administered drugs accurately, and understand the considerations that must be made when administering drugs to special populations.
Organization
Calculating Dosages Safely: A Dimensional Analysis Approach is organized in a simpletocomplex manner, where each chapter is designed to build on concepts learned in earlier chapters. The text is divided into four units:
Unit 1: Arithmetic Review and Dimensional Analysis includes basic arithmetic
concepts such as working with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percents, and introduces the principles of dimensional analysis.
Unit 2: Medication Administration covers concepts of medication administration such as systems of measurements, converting between systems of measurement, safety considerations, medication orders, reading labels and dosing devices, calculating dosages based on body weight and body surface area, intravenous delivery systems, and calculating intravenous ﬂ ow rates.
Unit 3: Special Topics addresses enteral tube feedings, insulin and heparin administration, critical care dosage calculations, and lifespan considerations in dosage calculations.
Unit 4: Answers to Chapter PostTest contains the answers to each chapter’s posttest.
The three appendices at the end of the book provide extra assistance on using a calculator, interpreting Roman numerals, and converting the civilian clock to military time.
Features
Calculating Dosages Safely: A Dimensional Analysis Approach offers the following features:
• Arithmetic Skills Assessment: This pretest is designed to highlight strengths and weaknesses, allowing students to focus on areas of remediation before starting study on dosage calculations.
• Arithmetic Review: Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are for students who want or need to review basic arithmetic skills.
• Glossaries: Each chapter contains a glossary of terms used in math or medication administration.
• Learning Objectives: Expected learning outcomes for the student are speciﬁ ed.
• Icons: Note and Alert icons are designed to bring attention to important points:
• The Note icon directs attention to information that may highlight a concept or contain a shortcut hint.
• The Alert icon directs attention to information that is vital for safe medication practice, including avoiding errors in dosage calculation.
• Examples: Each topic includes adequate examples that walk the student through the problem in a stepbystep manner.
• Labels: Real and simulated drug labels help students become comfortable with gathering the information needed to reconstitute powdered medications or calculate dosages accurately.
• Practice: Each chapter is interspersed with short practice quizzes that assess the student’s skill level with the topics just learned.
• Case Studies: Selected chapters feature case studies that reﬂ ect actual clinical practice experiences in calculating dosages, using clinical protocols, and administering medications.
• Key Points: Each chapter contains a list of the most important points contained within the chapter.
• Chapter PostTests: Chapter posttests assess skills learned in that chapter.
• Unit PostTests: Unit posttests assess skills learned in the entire unit.
• Comprehensive PostTest: The comprehensive posttest assesses skills learned throughout the entire book.
DavisPlus Materials
Student Resources
• Basic Math Interactive Exercise provides review of fractions, decimals, and roman numerals.
• Speed Challenge Chapter Quizzes challenge students’ ability to calculate dosages quickly and accurately.
• Syringe Pull Exercises test the accuracy of drawing up medications in a syringe.
• Dosage Calculation Tools for quick calculation of BMI, temperature, and more.
• Links to additional webbased resources:
• Practice opportunities for basic arithmetic skills through games
• Organizations related to safe medication practices, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices
• YouTube videos and animations showing demonstrations of skills related to medication administration
Instructor Resources
• Instructors Guide with sample syllabi
• Powerpoint presentations covering each chapter of instruction
• Instructor test bank with over 250 questions.
• Speed Challenge Answer Key provides answers for the student quizzes.\
Using This Book
Many student nurses say that making a medication error is their biggest fear. Medication errors happen every day in healthcare facilities and are a major reason for extended hospital stays, patient injury, and even death. Dimensional Analysis: Calculating Dosages Safely was designed and written to provide you with skill and conﬁ dence to calculate simple and complex dosage problems.
After reading the introduction, browse through a chapter and become familiar with the layout.
1. Each chapter starts with a glossary. Read through it to familiarize yourself with terms that may be new to you.
2. Read through the learning objectives. The learning objectives introduce the topics to be covered and outline the goals to be achieved after reading the chapter and completing the practice questions and case studies.
3. Read each section carefully, paying special attention to notes and alerts. Review the examples provided until you clearly understand the concept.
4. Take the Practice quiz after each section of instruction.
Before calculating your answer, review your work to make sure that you have accounted
for all relevant information in the problem, and review your equation to make sure that no errors have been made. After calculating the answer, critically evaluate it to see if it reasonable and logical. Compare your answers to those in the answer key. Since accuracy is of utmost importance in dosage calculations, carefully review any wrong answers. Ask for help if you do not understand where an error exists.
5. Complete the Case Study if one is included at the end of the chapter. The case studies
are designed to reﬂ ect “reallife” clinical experiences with medication administration and dosage calculations.
6. Read through the Key Points to review important concepts discussed within the chapter.
7. Take the chapter posttest to assess how well you understand the material presented in the chapter, and your ability to calculate dosages accurately.
8. Take the chapter Speed Challenge test on DavisPlus. The goal is to complete the quiz with 100% accuracy within 20 minutes.
9. After completing all chapters in a unit, take the unit posttest. Assess any wrong answers carefully.
10. After completing all chapters, take the comprehensive posttest in the book. If additional practice is desired, take the comprehensive posttest included the ﬁ ve comprehensive speed challenge quizzes on DavisPlus.
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