Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision Dsm-5-tr
The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a classification of mental disorders with associated criteria designed to facilitate more reliable diagnoses of these disorders. With successive editions over the past 60 years, it has become a standard reference for clinical practice in the mental health field. Since a complete description of the underlying pathological processes is not possible for most mental disorders, it is important to emphasize that the current diagnostic criteria are the best available description of how mental disorders are expressed and can be recognized by trained clinicians. DSM is intended to serve as a practical, functional, and flexible guide for organizing information that can aid in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. It is a tool for clinicians, an essential educational resource for students and practitioners, and a reference for researchers in the field.
Although this edition of DSM was designed first and foremost to be a useful guide to clinical practice, as an official nomenclature it must be applicable in a wide diversity of contexts. DSM has been used by clinicians and researchers from different orientations (biological, psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, interpersonal, family/systems), all of whom strive for a common language to communicate the essential characteristics of mental disorders presented by their patients. The information is of value to all professionals associated with various aspects of mental health care, including psychiatrists, other physicians, psychologists, social workers, nurses, counselors, forensic and legal specialists, occupational and rehabilitation therapists, and other health professionals. The criteria are concise and explicit and intended to facilitate an objective assessment of symptom presentations in a variety of clinical settings—inpatient, outpatient, partial hospital, consultation-liaison, clinical, private practice, and primary care—as well in general community epidemiological studies of mental disorders. DSM-5 is also a tool for collecting and communicating accurate public health statistics on mental disorder morbidity and mortality rates. Finally, the criteria and corresponding text serve as a textbook for students early in their profession who need a structured way to understand and diagnose mental disorders as well as for seasoned professionals encountering rare disorders for the first time. Fortunately, all of these uses are mutually compatible.
These diverse needs and interests were taken into consideration in planning DSM-5. The classification of disorders is harmonized with the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD), the official coding system used in the United States, so that the DSM criteria define disorders identified by ICD diagnostic names and code numbers. In DSM-5, both ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes (the latter scheduled for adoption in October 2015) are attached to the relevant disorders in the classification.
Although DSM-5 remains a categorical classification of separate disorders, we recognize that mental disorders do not always fit completely within the boundaries of a single disorder. Some symptom domains, such as depression and anxiety, involve multiple diagnostic categories and may reflect common underlying vulnerabilities for a larger group of disorders. In recognition of this reality, the disorders included in DSM-5 were reordered into a revised organizational structure meant to stimulate new clinical perspectives. This new structure corresponds with the organizational arrangement of disorders planned for ICD-11 scheduled for release in 2015. Other enhancements have been introduced to promote ease of use across all settings:
Representation of developmental issues related to diagnosis. The change in chapter organization better reflects a lifespan approach, with disorders more frequently diagnosed in childhood (e.g., neurodevelopmental disorders) at the beginning of the manual and disorders more applicable to older adulthood (e.g., neurocognitive disorders) at the end of the manual. Also, within the text, subheadings on development and course provide descriptions of how disorder presentations may change across the lifespan. Age-related factors specific to diagnosis (e.g., symptom presentation and prevalence differences in certain age groups) are also included in the text. For added emphasis, these age-related factors have been added to the criteria themselves where applicable (e.g., in the criteria sets for insomnia disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, specific criteria describe how symptoms might be expressed in children). Likewise, gender and cultural issues have been integrated into the disorders where applicable.
Integration of scientific findings from the latest research in genetics and neuroimaging. The revised chapter structure was informed by recent research in neuroscience and by emerging genetic linkages between diagnostic groups. Genetic and physiological risk factors, prognostic indicators, and some putative diagnostic markers are highlighted in the text. This new structure should improve clinicians’ ability to identify diagnoses in a disorder spectrum based on common neurocircuitry, genetic vulnerability, and environmental exposures.
Consolidation of autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder into autism spectrum disorder. Symptoms of these disorders represent a single continuum of mild to severe impairments in the two domains of social communication and restrictive repetitive behaviors/interests rather than being distinct disorders. This change is designed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and to identify more focused treatment targets for the specific impairments identified.
Streamlined classification of bipolar and depressive disorders. Bipolar and depressive disorders are the most commonly diagnosed conditions in psychiatry. It was therefore important to streamline the presentation of these disorders to enhance both clinical and educational use. Rather than separating the definition of manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes from the definition of bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and major depressive disorder as in the previous edition, we included all of the component criteria within the respective criteria for each disorder. This approach will facilitate bedside diagnosis and treatment of these important disorders. Likewise, the explanatory notes for differentiating bereavement and major depressive disorder will provide far greater clinical guidance than was previously provided in the simple bereavement exclusion criterion. The new specifiers of anxious distress and mixed features are now fully described in the narrative on specifier variations that accompanies the criteria for these disorders.
Restructuring of substance use disorders for consistency and clarity. The categories of substance abuse and substance dependence have been eliminated and replaced with an overarching new category of substance use disorders—with the specific substance used defining the specific disorders. “Dependence” has been easily confused with the term “addiction” when, in fact, the tolerance and withdrawal that previously defined dependence are actually very normal responses to prescribed medications that affect the central nervous system and do not necessarily indicate the presence of an addiction. By revising and clarifying these criteria in DSM-5, we hope to alleviate some of the widespread misunderstanding about these issues.
Enhanced specificity for major and mild neurocognitive disorders. Given the explosion in neuroscience, neuropsychology, and brain imaging over the past 20 years, it was critical to convey the current state-of-the-art in the diagnosis of specific types of disorders that were previously referred to as the “dementias” or organic brain diseases. Biological markers identified by imaging for vascular and traumatic brain disorders and
specific molecular genetic findings for rare variants of Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease have greatly advanced clinical diagnoses, and these disorders and others have now been separated into specific subtypes.
Transition in conceptualizing personality disorders. Although the benefits of a more dimensional approach to personality disorders have been identified in previous editions, the transition from a categorical diagnostic system of individual disorders to one based on the relative distribution of personality traits has not been widely accepted. In DSM-5, the categorical personality disorders are virtually unchanged from the previous edition. However, an alternative “hybrid” model has been proposed in Section III to guide future research that separates interpersonal functioning assessments and the expression of pathological personality traits for six specific disorders. A more dimensional profile of personality trait expression is also proposed for a trait-specified approach.
Section III: new disorders and features. A new section (Section III) has been added to highlight disorders that require further study but are not sufficiently well established to be a part of the official classification of mental disorders for routine clinical use. Dimensional measures of symptom severity in 13 symptom domains have also been incorporated to allow for the measurement of symptom levels of varying severity across all diagnostic groups. Likewise, the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS), a standard method for assessing global disability levels for mental disorders that is based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and is applicable in all of medicine, has been provided to replace the more limited Global Assessment of Functioning scale. It is our hope that as these measures are implemented over time, they will provide greater accuracy and flexibility in the clinical description of individual symptomatic presentations and associated disability during diagnostic assessments.
Online enhancements. DSM-5 features online supplemental information. Additional cross-cutting and diagnostic severity measures are available online (www.psychiatry.org/dsm5), linked to the relevant disorders. In addition, the Cultural Formulation Interview, Cultural Formulation Interview—Informant Version, and supplementary modules to the core Cultural Formulation Interview are also included online at www.psychiatry.org/dsm5.
|Download Ebook||Read Now||File Type||Upload Date|
|April 8, 2022|
Do you like this book? Please share with your friends, let's read it !! :)