Color Atlas of Veterinary Anatomy, Volume 3, The Dog and Cat 2nd Edition
This third volume in the series, like the first two on the ruminant and horse, is primarily intended for veterinary students and practising veterinary surgeons. Nevertheless, we confidently expect it to appeal to a wider audience including dog and cat enthusiasts, research workers, comparative anatomists, premedical students, in fact anyone with a desire to appreciate the topographical anatomy of the domestic carnivores.
The book presents the important features of regional and topographical anatomy in a series of full-color photographs of detailed dissections. These structures are identified in accompanying colored and extensively labelled drawings. The nomenclature is based on that of the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (1983) with the Latin terminology used for muscles, arteries, veins, lymphatics, and nerves, but the terminology anglicised for most other structures. Captions for the photographs give additional information necessary for their interpretation, such as those structures removed or displaced to obtain the picture.
A criticism levelled at using embalmed cadavers for dissection is that they lack ‘realism’, normal color and form, and often bear little resemblance to organs in their natural state. This criticism indeed has some validity if one is actually doing the dissecting – embalmed material does not have the ‘feel’ of fresh material having lost its elasticity and pliability. However, if one is considering the topographical relationships between structures and their relative positions then much of the criticism disappears, since the embalmed cadaver is arguably better at displaying such relationships. Photographs of such embalmed specimens are also clearer and more readily interpreted than photographs of fresh material. Consequently photography of embalmed latex injected specimens was preferred in our attempts to impart an initial appreciation of regional and topographical anatomy.
The dissections and photographs have been specially prepared for this book, except for a few photographs of specimens in the Anatomy Museum collection of the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College London. The radiographs were prepared originally for teaching purposes and correspond in large measure to radiographs that practising veterinary surgeons would routinely be interpreting.
Three dogs, two bitches and two cats were dissected for this work. It was not the object of the book to consider intraspecific variation and so breed differences have been ignored in the dissections. Each animal was dissected completely through a progressive series of dissections. We therefore encountered similar problems to those facing a veterinary student dissecting the same cadaver over a period of some months with consequent deterioration.
The specimens were embalmed using methods routinely employed in the Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences at The Royal Veterinary College. Their blood vessels were subsequently injected with colored neoprene latex and they were stored in formalin (7%).
The aim of the dissections is to display the topography of the animal to, among others, the veterinary student and surgeon. Unlike the ox and horse, however, a routine clinical examination of the dog or cat is not restricted to a lateral approach with the animal in the standing position. Thus, while lateral views predominate to correspond and make comparison with the horse and ox, they are supplemented by numerous dissections from a ventral approach. Also, as with the ox and horse, we have as far as possible avoided photographs of parts removed from the body, or the use of views from unusual angles or of unusual bodily positions.
This volume differs from the first two volumes in several ways. The general introductory chapter and the inclusion of radiographs was not a feature of the earlier volumes. Radiography of the ox and horse, apart from the practical problems of obtaining good radiographs, is also of restricted value in providing topographical information. In the smaller domestic animals it is obviously easier to accomplish and provides much useful information to supplement dissections. Secondly, an additional chapter is devoted specifically to the vertebral column with special emphasis on the disposition of the epaxial musculature. Thirdly, transverse sections through the various regions are used to assist in the interpretation of three-dimensional topography, as in modern imaging methods.
A significant difference between this edition of the volume and previous editions is the addition of new radiographs, CT and MRI scans which are placed throughout the book in appropriate chapters. A second major difference is the inclusion of clinical notes at the beginning of each main chapter. These notes highlight the areas of anatomy which are of particular clinical significance. Finally, over 60 self-assessment questions are available online with this new edition to help test learning. We feel that these additions to the book add considerably to its usefulness especially to the aspiring veterinary surgeon.
Volumes 1 and 2 in this series were specifically produced to help compensate for any lack of personal dissection of the large domestic species by veterinary students. It is still the case that the bulk of a student’s dissection is performed on a dog or cat cadaver, but even this may not be a complete detailed dissection of an entire specimen. Increasingly, formal dissection is not part of the curriculum as modern diagnostic techniques replace more conventional technologies. Dissection specimens have always been shared between several dissectors but nowadays, for a variety of reasons such as cost, availability and time allocation, the amount of ‘hands-on’ dissection that any individual student can accomplish is less than in past years. The reduced availability of material for prosection, coupled with the reduced levels of manpower to produce and maintain the prosecutions, means that the production of good demonstrations, as well as museum preparations of a full range of dissection stages of a specific region, is no longer feasible.
It is our sincere hope that this photographic atlas of dissections will: (a) help to compensate those students who for whatever reason are unable to carry out the detailed dissection for themselves; (b) provide a permanent reminder of what was seen, or should have been seen, by those students able to carry out their own detailed dissections.
We reiterate the plea put forward in volumes 1 and 2 that we do not want to entice students out of the dissection room, away from the specimens, and into the comfort of armchairs for their study of practical topographical anatomy. Rather, we have attempted to provide an atlas with which they can confirm and extend their own personal study of dissections of the dog and cat at times when the dissections are no longer available. However, for those of you unable to dissect for yourself or to view prosected specimens, this atlas will, we hope, provide you with the next best thing – a comprehensive selection of photographs and labelled interpretative drawings which you can examine at leisure.
The dissections presented in this volume represent complete dissection sequences from the surface inwards – a lateral sequence supplemented by a ventral sequence and a dorsal sequence. Progressive stages have been photographed at regular intervals as structures become revealed, clarified and defined, and many eventually removed. A comment is needed on the technique of dissection shown in these photographs. In many instances we have not cleaned away all of the connective tissue from the structures being displayed, although we have felt it to be necessary to clear fat from any locations in order to reveal salient features. In ‘complete’ dissections it is often impossible to preserve accurately the original topographical relationships of vessels and nerves. Also, such dissections encourage the student to think that textbook drawings are ‘real’ and that adipose, fascial and areolar tissues do not exist. We have tried to make the photographs represent the structures as they really appear during the course of an actual dissection.
Although veterinary students are the main targets for this volume it is not intended to be an atlas of applied Veterinary Anatomy. No special emphasis is given to any particular region or structure: the detail we have included will form a sound basis for any specific application.
The first chapter gives an overall general picture of the dog concentrating on its surface anatomy, the surface relationships of its internal viscera and the skeletal structure. Skeletal components are only shown as articulated units forming the bony basis of the specific region. Isolated osteological preparations have not been included as they add little to an account of topography. Each of the subsequent chapters dealing with specific regions of the body begins with photographs of regional surface features of the live animal together with complementary photographs of an articulated canine skeleton to illustrate the important palpable bony features of these regions. The bulk of each chapter then gives a detailed sequence of dissections from lateral and ventral aspects, and terminates with a series of transverse sections through the region. The thorax and abdomen include dissection sequences from both left lateral and right lateral approaches: the head and vertebral column also include sequences from a dorsal aspect. The final chapter deals with the cat and concentrates on those features which differ significantly from the dog set out in the preceding chapters.
Volumes 1 and 2 in this series assumed that readers would already have obtained the basics of systematic anatomy and were extending these to the topography of the large domestic species. This volume can make no such assumption and will undoubtedly be consulted by students at an early stage in their anatomy course or by others having scant grounding in gross anatomy. Consequently, it is felt that a few notes on the terms of position and relationship routinely used in the titles and captions is necessary. It is also necessary if the book is being consulted by a reader familiar with human anatomy in which the anatomical position of normal reference is an upright stance. Human terms of reference include anterior and posterior, superior and inferior, which are inapplicable in veterinary anatomy.
Anatomical relationships of structures will be described with the animal in a quadrupedal anatomical position – standing squarely on all four limbs with head and tail extended.
Dorsal/ventral – towards the back or upperside (dorsum)/towards the belly or underside (ventrum). In the limbs dorsal is used with reference to the front of the paws, while palmar/plantar are used for the rear (underside) of the forepaw and hindpaw respectively.
Cranial/caudal – towards the head/towards the tail. In the head itself the term rostral (towards the rostrum or muzzle) is used in preference to cranial which would be ambiguous. In the limbs the terms cranial and caudal are used to refer to the front and rear surfaces above (proximal to) the carpus and tarsus.
Medial/lateral – towards the midline (median plane)/towards the side or away from the midline. In the limbs the terms are used to refer to the inner and outer surfaces respectively.
Proximal/distal – towards the central axis of the body (or the origin of a structure)/more removed from the central axis of the body (or the origin of a structure), particularly relevant in the limbs the proximal region being closer to the trunk, the paw being the most distal part.
Axial/abaxial – close to the midline (central axis) of a limb/structures away from this midline of a limb. In the paws this central limb axis passes between digits 3 and 4, thus the axial surface of a digit faces the axis/abaxial surface faces away from the axis.
Deep (internal)/superficial (external) – removed from the surface of the body or at the centre of a solid organ/towards the surface of the body or the surface of a solid organ.
Right/Left – determined in relation to the animal and not the observer, an important distinction when the animal is lying on its back or when a transverse section through the body is being viewed from the cranial aspect.
The head trunk and limbs have been sectioned in order to obtain some of the photographs. In this context reference is made to specific planes:
Median plane – longitudinal plane dividing the animal into equal right and left halves.
Sagittal plane – a plane parallel to the median plane.
Transverse plane – crosses body or limb at right angles to the long axis, or the long axis of an organ or body part.
With reference to the radiographs, the view is described in relation to the direction the X-rays take from point of entrance into the animal to point of exit.
It is also essential to point out that only a limited number of animals were dissected in the studies for this volume. In our many years of experience we have found considerable individual variations between animals. This is particularly so with respect to arteries and veins. Therefore variations may be found between other dissections and those described in this volume.
Table of Contents
LIVE AND SKELETAL ANATOMY OF WHOLE ANIMAL
THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
THE CAT: COMPARATIVE ASPECTS
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|Epub||February 18, 2021|
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