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ISE Principles of Electronic Communication Systems

ISE Principles of Electronic Communication Systems PDF

Author: Louis E. Frenzel

Publisher: McGraw Hill


Publish Date: March 30, 2022

ISBN-10: 126059789X

Pages: 944

File Type: Epub

Language: English

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Book Preface

To Instructors

This new fifth edition of the Principles of Electronic Communication Systems has been fully reviewed and updated. A book such as this needs revision frequently as the technology changes continually. Of course, the fundamentals of electronics communications do not change. However, the ways these principles are applied do change occasionally. During the past five years since the introduction of the previous fourth edition, some major changes and additions have taken place. Most of these changes are important to those of you teaching communications technology and for those of you who are out looking for work in this field. A high percentage of the new jobs involves the most recent developments.

As a writer and editor for a major electronics magazine, I am able to keep up on all the new products and technologies by way of continuous monitoring and interacting with the industries and companies that design, manufacture, and apply the new equipment. Keeping track of all of this is a full-time job.

This new version of the book is a balance of standard fundamentals and principles plus an introduction to the most recent and relevant products and technologies. It also incorporates the suggestions that some of you have provided, for which I am grateful. Here are the highlights of this new edition. Note most of the chapter sequences and numbers have changed and two new chapters (12 and 15) have been added.

• Chapters 1 through 7 are pretty much the same. Fundamentals do not change much, although these chapters were edited and updated.

• Chapters 8 and 9 on transmitters and receivers also remain pretty much the same except for minor updates. Also, some material from these chapters has been moved to the new Chapter 12 covering software-defined radios (SDRs).

• Chapters 10 and 11 have been reversed. It is important to cover the digital fundamentals before diving into multiplexing. Heavy edit.

• Chapter 12 is a new chapter covering software-defined radios.

• Chapter 13 on transmission lines has been updated.

• Chapter 14 on networking has been updated with enhancements to the Ethernet coverage.

• Chapter 15 is a totally new chapter that covers popular wired communication techniques and serial interfaces. Wire or cable, it’s still a major form of communications.

• Chapter 16 on antennas and propagation has been updated.

• Chapter 17 on Internet technologies has been revised to include topics such as Internet telephony, virtualization, and cloud usage.

• Chapter 18 on microwaves and millimeter waves has been enhanced with increased coverage of relevant antenna technology such as MIMO and agile beam-forming phased arrays.

• Chapter 19 on satellites has been updated with new GPS information and other new material.

• Chapter 20 on optical technology received minor updating.

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• Chapter 21 on the cellular technologies is virtually all new. LTE coverage has been updated and expanded. Full coverage of the new 5G New Radio standard and systems has been added.

• Chapter 22, covering the various popular short-range wireless technologies, has been extensively updated adding new Bluetooth (LE) and Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax) versions. The Internet of Things (IoT) material has been increased and the full spectrum of new wireless standards and methods has been added.

• Chapter 23 on test and measurement has been updated with new instruments and methods. The addition of VNAs and S-parameters was overdue.

You will notice that I omitted mention of one chapter: previous Chapter 18 on telecommunications. This chapter covered legacy telephones and telephone systems. Wired telephones have been fading away for years, and today most people use only their cell phones. In fact, in many locations throughout the United States, local loop-wired telephone service is no longer available. Further, telephone companies are gradually sunsetting their wired service and putting most of their investments into the buildout of their wireless systems, especially the new 5G NR services. Employment opportunities in the wired telecom field have mostly disappeared. I felt it best to use the available space in this textbook on the more up-to-date technologies. Some of the more useful telecom material has been incorporated into other chapters as appropriate.

I have continued with the end-of-chapter Online Activities. It is essential that all of you who use this book know that there is more communications and wireless knowledge and information out there than you can ever absorb. A good Internet search is essential if you ever want to dig deeper or to look more broadly at any given subject. The topics I chose reflect current trends and applications.

I have tried to edit out the older discrete component circuits where appropriate and replace them with the equivalent IC devices used today. I have left in discussion of some popular discrete component circuits where they are still used. I know some of you still like to teach the older circuits. That’s fine if you do, but you may want to point out that the real world uses more ICs as well as complete systems on a chip (SoC).

A mixed bag of new appendices has also been included. These are informational pieces on subjects that do not fit conveniently into the main chapters. Hopefully you will find them useful.

Before I conclude, let me give you my view of where the industry and technology are headed. These are not only the trends and developments I see but also what the market analysists and company CEOs are saying and thinking. Hopefully this will give you clues as to how to slant your course coverage and better target what graduates really need to know to get hired today. It is easy to fall into a pattern of teaching the same things repeatedly each semester as it is easier to proceed with previously developed materials than it is to add new relevant material. Don’t be one of those who does a good job of teaching the history of communications but ignores the movements and emphasis that is needed out in the real world. The fundamentals are important and you must continue to teach them but also shift the emphasis as needed and add new material regularly. I hope this revised edition will help with that effort. Yes, I have taught this before so know there is always more material to cover than there is time to include it.

Macro Trends

1. The emphasis today is on systems more than on individual components and circuits. Engineers and technicians work with the end equipment, related modules, and subassemblies and not so much so with components. While you teach the components, put the focus on the application, including the related equipment, module, PCB or IC. A good approach is to use more block diagrams and signal flow discussions. Give the big picture or, as they say, the 10,000-ft view.

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2. Most new comm and wireless equipment today operates at the microwave or millimeter-wave frequencies. Remember microwaves begin at 1 GHz. So common things like Bluetooth, ZigBee, satellite TV, and GPS are all microwave devices. Low-frequency gear is still around, of course, but virtually all new applications and equipment operate at frequencies from the 5-GHz 802.11ax Wi-Fi to the single-chip auto radars at 77 GHz. Most of the new 5G cellular gear operates in the range from 1 GHz to 6 GHz with all the new mmWave systems using the 28-, 37-, 39-GHz to 47-GHz bands. Electronics and communications at these frequencies are different. Start shifting your teaching emphasis to those components and circuits that work at those frequencies.

3. What engineers and techs do all day is fuss with test gear. You must teach test and measurement. While the scope is still a prominent bench instrument, today the more useful RF instruments are the spectrum analyzer, vector network analyzer, and RF signal emulators and generators. I am sure you know that these instruments are extremely expensive. Few if any college labs can afford them, but do work toward acquiring them. Buy used, borrow, or rent if you can so that you can give students at least some short lab experiences with them. And lectures and demos are better than nothing.

4. Add coverage of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and electromagnetic interference (EMI). There is so much wireless floating around out there that interference and coexistence of technologies have become problems. A major part of a wireless engineer’s or technician’s work is tracking down EMI and eliminating or minimizing it. This is another topic that requires specialized test gear.

5. Finally, make students realize that virtually every phase of communications and wireless is heavily regulated. Make sure they know about the FCC and NTIA, the spectrum issues, and all of the rules and regulations in the CFR 47 Parts 0–99, especially Parts 15 and 18. And mention all of the standards bodies and industry alliances. These often hidden or ignored organizations control the whole technology and industry and are dynamite sources of information.

Thanks for continuing to use this text. Let me and/or McGraw Hill know if you find any errors or if you wish to suggest additional or revised coverage.

To Students

This book is loaded with information. As you will probably discover, the course you are taking will probably not cover all the chapters as it is too much to include in one semester. Here are some of suggestions to help you make it through the course.

This book assumes that you have had some prior course or training in electronics. Most of you will have had the prerequisites in one or more college courses or acquired this knowledge in military service or company training programs. Even self-study is a valid way to learn the fundamentals.

Then again, you may not have had any electronics background. If that is the case, you may want to get that background education before continuing here.

If you have had some basic electronics background but it has been a while since you have acquired it, you have probably forgotten much of this knowledge. One recommended solution is to keep one or more electronics fundamentals books around so you can look up what you forgot or never learned. Chapter 2 in this book covers much of what you probably learned in an AC Circuits course that should expedite your learning. My own McGraw Hill textbook, Contemporary Electronics, Fundamentals, Devices, Circuits and Systems, covers all that you should know.

Check out the book list in Appendix A that recommends those books I found to be helpful.

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As it has turned out, the communications sector is the largest part of the U.S. electronics industry. Because of that, many jobs are available. Taking this course and finishing your education should provide you with enough credentials to get one of those communications jobs. If you get one of those jobs, you may want to keep this textbook as a reference as you may need it occasionally. Anyway, good luck with the course, your education, and job search. Here’s to your coming success.

Lou Frenzel

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