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Schaum’s Outline of Beginning Statistics, 2 Edition



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Author: Larry Stephens

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

Genres:

Publish Date: September 15, 2009

ISBN-10: 71635335

Pages: 432

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

STATISTICS

Statistics is a discipline of study dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. Pollsters who sample our opinions concerning topics ranging from art to zoology utilize statistical methodology. Statistical methodology is also utilized by business and industry to help control the quality of goods and services that they produce. Social scientists and psychologists use statistical methodology to study our behaviors. Because of its broad range of applicability, a course in statistics is required of majors in disciplines such as sociology, psychology, criminal justice, nursing, exercise science, pharmacy, education, and many others. To accommodate this diverse group of users, examples and problems in this outline are chosen from many different sources.

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

The use of graphs, charts, and tables and the calculation of various statistical measures to organize and summarize information is called descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics help to reduce our information to a manageable size and put it into focus.

EXAMPLE 1.1 The compilation of batting average, runs batted in, runs scored, and number of home runs for each player, as well as earned run average, won/lost percentage, number of saves, etc., for each pitcher from the official score sheets for major league baseball players is an example of descriptive statistics. These statistical measures allow us to compare players, determine whether a player is having an “off year” or “good year,” etc.

EXAMPLE 1.2 The publication entitled Crime in the United States published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation gives summary information concerning various crimes for the United States. The statistical measures given in this publication are also examples of descriptive statistics and they are useful to individuals in law enforcement.


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