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Organic Chemistry, 12th Edition


Author: T. W. Graham Solomons and Craig B. Fryhle

Publisher: Wiley


Publish Date: January 19, 2016

ISBN-10: 1118875761

Pages: 1200

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

Organic chemistry plays a role in all aspects of our lives, from the clothing we wear, to the pixels of our television and computer screens, to preservatives in food, to the inks that color the pages of this book. If you take the time to understand organic chemistry, to learn its overall logic, then you will truly have the power to change society. Indeed, organic chemistry provides the power to synthesize new drugs, to engineer molecules that can make computer processors run more quickly, to understand why grilled meat can cause cancer and how its effects can be combated, and to design ways to knock the calories out of sugar while still making food taste deliciously sweet. It can explain biochemical processes like aging, neural functioning, and cardiac arrest, and show how we can prolong and improve life. It can do almost anything.

In this chapter we will consider:
• what kinds of atoms make up organic molecules
• the principles that determine how the atoms in organic molecules are bound together
• how best to depict organic molecules


At the end of the chapter, we will see how some of the unique organic structures that nature has woven together possess amazing properties that we can harness to aid human health. See for additional examples, videos, and practice.

Brief Contents

1 The Basics Bonding and Molecular Structure 1
2 Families of Carbon Compounds Functional Groups, Intermolecular Forces, and Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy 55
3 Acids and Bases An Introduction to Organic Reactions and Their Mechanisms 104
4 Nomenclature and Conformations of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 144
5 Stereochemistry Chiral Molecules 193
6 Nucleophilic Reactions Properties and Substitution Reactions of Alkyl Halides 240
7 Alkenes and Alkynes I Properties and Synthesis. Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides 282
8 Alkenes and Alkynes II Addition Reactions 337
9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Mass Spectrometry Tools for Structure Determination 391
10 Radical Reactions 448
11 Alcohols and Ethers Synthesis and Reactions 489
12 Alcohols from Carbonyl Compounds Oxidation–Reduction and Organometallic Compounds 534
13 Conjugated Unsaturated Systems 572
14 Aromatic Compounds 617
15 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds 660
16 Aldehydes and Ketones Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbonyl
Group 711
17 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives Nucleophilic Addition–Elimination at the Acyl Carbon 761
18 Reactions at the α Carbon of Carbonyl Compounds Enols and Enolates 811
19 Condensation and Conjugate Addition Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds More Chemistry of Enolates 849
20 Amines 890
21 Transition Metal Complexes Promoters of Key Bond-Forming Reactions 938
22 Carbohydrates 965
23 Lipids 1011
24 Amino Acids and Proteins 1045
25 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis 1090
Glossary GL-1
Index I-1

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