# Lab Manual for Statistical Analysis

Genres:

## Book Preface

This lab manual is meant to accompany a text covering the basic statistics used in the behavioral sciences. It will focus on practicing the statistical skills and concepts you are covering in the course rather than providing the instruction on skills and concepts. In addition, the basics of research design are covered in some activities either on their own or where applicable to accompany statistical analysis.

There are five main sections. The first section contains activities that correspond to topics typically covered in statistics courses. The second section includes activities that examine the underlying statistical formulae with an emphasis on the conceptual similarities and differences among related statistical tests. The third section contains activities related to data analysis projects (including data sets) that students can analyze for analysis projects. The fourth section includes activities designed to help students choose the correct test for different types of data. The fifth section contains exercises designed to help students write up and interpret results from analyses in APA style.

# Contents

1. Preface
2. Introduction for Students
3. Section 1. Topic Activities
1. 1. Statistics in the Media
2. 2. The Purpose of Statistics
4. 4. Research Concepts: Designs, Validity, and Scales of Measurement
5. 5. Measurement Group Activity
6. 6. Designing an Experiment Group Activity
7. 7. Experimental Variables
8. 8. Distributions and Probability
9. 9. Displaying Distributions
10. 10. Setting Up Your Data in SPSS: Creating a Data File
11. 11. Displaying Distributions in SPSS
12. 12. Basic Probability
13. 13. Sampling
14. 14. Central Tendency 1
15. 15. Central Tendency 2
16. 16. Central Tendency in SPSS
17. 17. Describing a Distribution by Hand
18. 18. More Describing Distributions
19. 19. Descriptive Statistics Exercise
20. 20. Descriptive Statistics With Excel
21. 21. Measures of Variability in SPSS
22. 22. Calculating z Scores Using SPSS
23. 23. The Normal Distribution
24. 24. z Scores and the Normal Distribution
25. 25. Hypothesis Testing With Normal Populations
26. 26. Stating Hypotheses and Choosing Tests
27. 27. Hypothesis Testing With z Tests
28. 28. Hypothesis Testing With a Single Sample
29. 29. One-Sample t Test in SPSS
30. 30. One-Sample t Tests by Hand
31. 31. Related Samples t Tests
32. 32. Related Samples t Test in SPSS
33. 33. Independent Samples t Tests
34. 34. Hypothesis Testing: Multiple Tests
35. 35. More Hypothesis Tests With Multiple Tests
36. 36. t Tests Summary Worksheet
37. 37. Choose the Correct t Test
38. 38. One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA by Hand
39. 39. One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA in SPSS
40. 40. Factorial ANOVA
41. 41. One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA
42. 42. One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA in SPSS
43. 43. ANOVA Review
44. 44. Which Test Should I Use?
45. 45. Correlations and Scatterplots Exercise
46. 46. Correlations and Scatterplots 2
47. 47. Correlations and Scatterplots in SPSS
48. 48. Computing Correlations by Hand
49. 49. Computing Correlations by Hand 2
50. 50. Hypothesis Testing With Correlation
51. 51. Hypothesis Testing With Correlation Using SPSS
52. 52. Regression
53. 53. Chi-Square Test for Independence
4. Section 2. Meet the Formulae
1. 54. Meet the Formula: Standard Deviation
2. 55. Meet the Formula: z Score Transformation
3. 56. Meet the Formula: Single-Sample z Tests and t Tests
4. 57. Meet the Formula: Comparing Independent Samples and Related Samples t Tests
5. 58. Meet the Formula: One-Factor Between-Subjects ANOVA
6. 59. Meet the Formula: Two-Factor ANOVA
7. 60. Meet the Formula: One-Factor Within-Subjects ANOVA
8. 61. Meet the Formula: Correlation
9. 62. Meet the Formula: Bivariate Regression
5. Section 3. Data Analysis Projects
1. 63. Data Analysis Exercise: von Hippel, Ronay, Baker, Kjelsaas, and Murphy (2016)
2. 64. Data Analysis Exercise: Nairne, Pandeirada, and Thompson (2008)
3. 65. Data Analysis Project 1: Crammed Versus Distributed Study
4. 66. Data Analysis Project 2: Teaching Techniques Study
5. 67. Data Analysis Project 3: Distracted Driving Study
6. 68. Data Analysis Project 4: Temperature and Air Quality Study
7. 69. Data Analysis Project 5: Job Type and Satisfaction Study
8. 70. Data Analysis Project 6: Attractive Face Recognition Study
9. 71. Data Analysis Project 7: Discrimination in the Workplace Study
6. Section 4. How to Choose a Statistical Test
1. 72. Using the Flowchart to Find the Correct Statistical Test
2. 73. More Using the Flowchart to Find the Correct Statistical Test
3. 74. Research Design Exercise
4. 75. Design and Data Collection Exercise
5. 76. Designs and Analyses
7. Section 5. Describing and Interpreting Results in APA Style
1. 77. Writing a Results Section From SPSS Output: t Tests
2. 78. Writing a Results Section From SPSS Output: ANOVA
3. 79. Interpreting Results Exercise: Sproesser, Schupp, and Renner (2014)
4. 80. Interpreting Results Exercise: Ravizza, Uitvlugt, and Fenn (2017)
8. Appendix: Summary of Formulae
9. References