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ISE Integrated Principles of Zoology



ISE Integrated Principles of Zoology PDF

Author: Cleveland Hickman

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Interamericana

Genres:

Publish Date: February 9, 2021

ISBN-10: 1260565971

Pages: 1856

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

Integrated Principles of Zoology continues to be the leading text  for the introductory zoology course. With the eighteenth edition,  the authors bring a wealth of real experience as they describe the  diversity of animal life and the fascinating adaptations that enable  animals to inhabit so many ecological niches.

The overall organization of this text has proven to work well to  help students understand the content. Distinctive features, especially the emphasis on principles of evolution and zoological science, have been strengthened. To aid in student learning, several  pedagogical features have been retained: opening chapter prologues  drawn from the chapter’s theme; chapter summaries and review  questions to aid in comprehension and study; concise and visually  appealing illustrations; chapter notes and essays that offer interesting sidelights to the narrative; literature citations; and an extensive  glossary providing pronunciations, derivations, and definitions of  terms used in the text.

NEW TO THE EIGHTEENTH EDITION

Starting with this edition, a list of Learning Objectives opens each  chapter. These objectives are organized according to the chapter’s  main sections. Chapter summaries, many of which are expanded in  content, are restructured in tabular form to list the main highlights  of each section of the chapter. This correspondence between the  learning objectives, chapter sections, and summary should help students to organize the main lessons of each chapter. Our extensive  cross-referencing of material among the different parts of the book  now uses section numbers, with live links available in electronic  versions of the text.

Notes and essays separate from the main text are now numbered  for reference and organized according to six Key Themes: (1) Adaptation and Physiology, (2) Ecology, (3) Evolution, (4) Genetics and Development, (5) Human Connections, and (6) Science Explained.  Adaptation and Physiology connects the proximate and ultimate causes  underlying organismal functioning. Ecology addresses the interactions  of animal populations with their environments, including factors that  influence their geographic distribution and abundance. Evolution highlights common descent of animal species and the historical processes  that modify organismal characteristics in natural populations. Genetics  and Development covers the mechanisms of heredity and the ways in  which an organism uses genetic information to progress from a zygote  ultimately to an adult animal. Human Connections highlights ways in  which zoological findings influence human welfare, including medical  applications and maintaining environmental health, or how human activities have affected animal species. Science Explained covers scientific methodology and the history of scientific discovery.

In addition to these organizational revisions, we have replaced  many photographs and diagrams throughout the book to improve  clarity and vibrancy

We have updated geological periods on our phylogenetic trees  throughout the book; for example, the former Tertiary period is replaced with the Paleogene and Neogene periods.
We highlight some major revisions in order by the book’s five  major parts.

Part One, Introduction to Living Animals

In Chapter 1, we introduce the microbiome as an important characteristic of animal life. It is often overlooked that animals typically harbor thousands of species of bacteria and archaea,  primarily in the gut. These species typically exist in a harmless  symbiosis with their animal hosts, with fewer than 100 species of  bacteria being sources of infectious disease. As molecular genetic methods for identifying an animal’s microbiome improve,  this dimension is becoming an increasingly important part of zoology.

In Chapter 2, water as a solvent for respiratory gases is added to  its important properties for supporting life. The introduction to proteins is made more specific in stating that a typical protein contains  hundreds to thousands of amino acids of 20 standard kinds. Prions  are described in a Key Theme essay. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is  updated to 0.04%. The name Archaebacteria is updated to Archaea.  In discussing endosymbiotic theory, cyanobacterial invaginations  are introduced as a corresponding feature between cyanobacteria and  plastids.
Chapter 3 includes more explicit labeling of some figures and  color coordination among figures that incorporate the plasma membrane.

Part Two, Continuity and Evolution of Animal Life

In Chapter 5, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is made a  major concept and given a glossary entry. Key Themes include  titles on chromosomes and the cell cycle, genic cloning, genome  size, and junk or selfish DNA, and radiation and chemical mutagens. The chapter summary is expanded to cover more details of  the chapter. Chapter 6 includes new material on neutral alleles  and species selection in connection with the learning objectives.

August Weismann’s role in neo-Darwinian theory is elaborated.  In Chapter 7, parthenogenesis has been moved from the section  on sexual reproduction and presented instead as a separate condition intermediate between sexual and asexual reproduction.

Chapter 8 includes a new short discussion of coelom function.
Chapter 9 includes new material on the organizational level of  flatworms, the status of the spongocoel as a gut cavity in  sponges, junctional complexes found between epithelial cells,  and properties of oblique striated muscle.

Part Three, Diversity of Animal Life
In Chapter 10, new information is added on the roles of the holotype and paratypes in taxonomy, with new glossary definitions of  these terms. Contents of the major subdivisions of animal life are  updated to reflect new phylogenetic hypotheses.
Chapter 11 includes three new glossary terms: ancoracyst, mixotrophy, and trogocytosis, plus a revised description of red tide in a Key
Theme. New descriptions of clades Holomyota and Holozoa (within  Opisthokonta) appear with an associated revised Figure 11.36. Chapter  12 has a new opening essay and a revised section on the origin of  animals, with bioactive compounds now a Key Theme. Class Myxozoa has been added to Chapter 13 (full description) and to the associated cladogram in Figure 13.2. Phylum Xenacoelomorpha is now  included in Chapter 14: Xenoturbellida, previously in Chapter 22, is  now considered a protostome related to acoelomorph flatworms and  not a deuterostome, so it has been allied with Acoelomorpha as Xenacoelomorpha. The figure from Chapter 22 is now Figure 14.2. The  phylogeny section explains the revision of the group. Chapter 14 also  contains a revised Key Theme on schistosomiasis.  In Chapter 15, clade Kryptrochozoa has been removed in favor  of the more inclusive group Trochozoa, with an associated change in  the cladogram, Figure 15.1. In Chapter 17, Phylum Sipuncula has  been demoted and placed within Phylum Annelida; the cladogram in
Figure 17.1 is revised to accommodate this change. Several new  section numbers added to Chapter 17 make it easier to follow major  topics. Chapter 18 contains a new Key Theme on cryptobiosis and its  applications to storing blood. Chapter 21 contains a new Key Theme  on Varroa mites and bee colony collapse disorder. The opening essay
has updated statistics on locust outbreaks. Several new section numbers were added here to make it easier to follow major topics. Chapter 22 includes a revised Key Theme essay on Crown-of-Thorns  sea-star outbreaks and one on Diadema sea urchin outbreaks.
Figure 22.3 is revised to include new echinoderm fossil groups,  which are discussed in the echinoderm phylogeny section. Several  new section numbers make it easier to follow major topics.
Chapter 23 features consolidation of material on early chordate  evolution into a single section, and improved art for the cladogram,  chordate characters, and vertebrate innovations. New text is added to  explain problems with using Linnean taxonomy in chordates, and  why an unranked system is favored for higher chordate taxonomy.

This material applies as well to the other vertebrate chapters. Taxonomy and species numbers are updated. The biology and ecology of  amphioxus get increased treatment to match that of sea squirts and to  introduce traits discussed in the vertebrate chapters. New material on  early vertebrate evolution includes the early chordate Metaspriggina.

In Chapter 24, the introduction is modestly revised to outline the contents of the chapter. A single table now consolidates characteristics  of the four major fish groups, allowing easy comparison among  groups. Teleost suction feeding is expanded to emphasize its importance and to contrast it with feeding in terrestrial vertebrates. Shark  reproduction is rewritten to emphasize continuity of reproductive  mechanisms.

Chapter 25 is reorganized into a greater number of sections with  an expanded summary and some new information on temnospondyls  as a source of modern amphibians. Numbers of species are updated  to represent recent discoveries of cryptic species in many taxa. The  introduction to Chapter 26 is reorganized to outline the chapter’s  contents. Changes to the section on amniote adaptations include revised coverage of respiration, circulation, and special sensory systems. Some material on limb positions was moved to the mammal  chapter. New text on squamate reproduction complements coverage for turtles, crocodilians, and tuataras. Material on snake venom is  rewritten for clarity. The section on dinosaur systematics is updated.
Chapter 27 includes a new paragraph on early bird evolution in the  Cretaceous and Paleogene, and an extensive rewrite on dinosaur ancestry of birds. We revised the sections on fluid dynamics of avian  flight and the respiratory cycle. An expanded boxed essay now covers lead poisoning of condors. We reduce usage of the somewhat  awkward term “nonavian reptile” for the traditional Class Reptilia.

Chapter 28 features a substantial new section on early mammalian  evolution and on the megafauna of the Pleistocene. Updates include  mammalian dentition and feeding, migration of bats, and decline of  caribou populations in North America. Coverage of mammalian  population ecology was reduced to avoid redundancy with
Chapter 38. Human evolution is revised to include new research on  Australopithecus, Homo heidelbergensis, and Denisovans.

Part Four, Activity of Life
Chapter 30 includes new information on how mixing of freshwater  and seawater at the ebbing of tides produces physiological challenges for aquatic animals. Oncotic pressure (colloid osmotic pressure) is added as a force opposing blood hydrostatic pressure and as  a factor that produces edema in blood or interstitial fluid. New emphasis is placed on the relationship between surface area and volume in mammals’ ability to withstand cold environmental  temperatures. Chapter 31 includes a new Key Theme on hypertension and associated kidney disease. Chapter 32 adds breakdown of  nucleic acids to the section on digestion. Chapter 33 features redrawn Figures 33.7 and 33.8, with channels shown as opening when  the neurotransmitter binds. In Chapter 34 a new Key Theme lists  the heart as an endocrine organ producing atrial natriuritic peptide.
New information is added on the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin  in social behavior and the use of oxytocin as a treatment for autism  spectrum disorders. In Chapter 36, polyandry is now illustrated  with the example of Galápagos hawks.

Part Five, Animals and Their Environments
In Chapter 37, a new Key Theme is added on the demand for fresh  water and how global warming challenges our supply of fresh water.
Information on the Peruvian anchoveta fishery is updated.  Chapter 38 is restructured into more sections to coordinate the  learning objectives and chapter summary. The growth of human populations and the taxonomic status of Galápagos finches are updated.

TEACHING AND LEARNING AIDS

To help students in vocabulary development, key words are boldfaced and derivations of technical and zoological terms are provided, along with generic names of animals where they first appear  in the text. In this way students gradually become familiar with the more common roots that form many technical terms. An extensive  glossary provides pronunciation, derivation, and definition for  many terms, including new ones added to the glossary or existing  ones rewritten for this edition.

A distinctive feature of this text is a prologue for each chapter  that highlights a theme or fact relating to the chapter. Some prologues present biological, particularly evolutionary, principles; those  in Part Three on animal diversity illuminate distinguishing characteristics of the group presented in the chapter. Again, William C. Ober and Claire W. Ober have strengthened  the art program for this text with many new full-color paintings that  replace older art, or that illustrate new material. Bill’s artistic skills,  knowledge of biology, and experience gained from an earlier career  as a practicing physician have enriched this text through 10 of its  editions. Claire practiced pediatric and obstetric nursing before turning to scientific illustration as a full-time career. Texts illustrated by  Bill and Claire have received national recognition and won awards  from the Association of Medical Illustrators, American Institute of  Graphic Arts, Chicago Book Clinic, Printing Industries of America,  and Bookbuilders West. They are also recipients of the Art Directors Award


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