ISE Integrated Principles of Zoology
Integrated Principles of Zoology continues to be the leading text for the introductory zoology course. With the eighteenth edition, the authors bring a wealth of real experience as they describe the diversity of animal life and the fascinating adaptations that enable animals to inhabit so many ecological niches.
The overall organization of this text has proven to work well to help students understand the content. Distinctive features, especially the emphasis on principles of evolution and zoological science, have been strengthened. To aid in student learning, several pedagogical features have been retained: opening chapter prologues drawn from the chapter’s theme; chapter summaries and review questions to aid in comprehension and study; concise and visually appealing illustrations; chapter notes and essays that offer interesting sidelights to the narrative; literature citations; and an extensive glossary providing pronunciations, derivations, and definitions of terms used in the text.
NEW TO THE EIGHTEENTH EDITION
Starting with this edition, a list of Learning Objectives opens each chapter. These objectives are organized according to the chapter’s main sections. Chapter summaries, many of which are expanded in content, are restructured in tabular form to list the main highlights of each section of the chapter. This correspondence between the learning objectives, chapter sections, and summary should help students to organize the main lessons of each chapter. Our extensive cross-referencing of material among the different parts of the book now uses section numbers, with live links available in electronic versions of the text.
Notes and essays separate from the main text are now numbered for reference and organized according to six Key Themes: (1) Adaptation and Physiology, (2) Ecology, (3) Evolution, (4) Genetics and Development, (5) Human Connections, and (6) Science Explained. Adaptation and Physiology connects the proximate and ultimate causes underlying organismal functioning. Ecology addresses the interactions of animal populations with their environments, including factors that influence their geographic distribution and abundance. Evolution highlights common descent of animal species and the historical processes that modify organismal characteristics in natural populations. Genetics and Development covers the mechanisms of heredity and the ways in which an organism uses genetic information to progress from a zygote ultimately to an adult animal. Human Connections highlights ways in which zoological findings influence human welfare, including medical applications and maintaining environmental health, or how human activities have affected animal species. Science Explained covers scientific methodology and the history of scientific discovery.
In addition to these organizational revisions, we have replaced many photographs and diagrams throughout the book to improve clarity and vibrancy
We have updated geological periods on our phylogenetic trees throughout the book; for example, the former Tertiary period is replaced with the Paleogene and Neogene periods.
We highlight some major revisions in order by the book’s five major parts.
Part One, Introduction to Living Animals
In Chapter 1, we introduce the microbiome as an important characteristic of animal life. It is often overlooked that animals typically harbor thousands of species of bacteria and archaea, primarily in the gut. These species typically exist in a harmless symbiosis with their animal hosts, with fewer than 100 species of bacteria being sources of infectious disease. As molecular genetic methods for identifying an animal’s microbiome improve, this dimension is becoming an increasingly important part of zoology.
In Chapter 2, water as a solvent for respiratory gases is added to its important properties for supporting life. The introduction to proteins is made more specific in stating that a typical protein contains hundreds to thousands of amino acids of 20 standard kinds. Prions are described in a Key Theme essay. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is updated to 0.04%. The name Archaebacteria is updated to Archaea. In discussing endosymbiotic theory, cyanobacterial invaginations are introduced as a corresponding feature between cyanobacteria and plastids.
Chapter 3 includes more explicit labeling of some figures and color coordination among figures that incorporate the plasma membrane.
Part Two, Continuity and Evolution of Animal Life
In Chapter 5, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is made a major concept and given a glossary entry. Key Themes include titles on chromosomes and the cell cycle, genic cloning, genome size, and junk or selfish DNA, and radiation and chemical mutagens. The chapter summary is expanded to cover more details of the chapter. Chapter 6 includes new material on neutral alleles and species selection in connection with the learning objectives.
August Weismann’s role in neo-Darwinian theory is elaborated. In Chapter 7, parthenogenesis has been moved from the section on sexual reproduction and presented instead as a separate condition intermediate between sexual and asexual reproduction.
Chapter 8 includes a new short discussion of coelom function.
Chapter 9 includes new material on the organizational level of flatworms, the status of the spongocoel as a gut cavity in sponges, junctional complexes found between epithelial cells, and properties of oblique striated muscle.
Part Three, Diversity of Animal Life
In Chapter 10, new information is added on the roles of the holotype and paratypes in taxonomy, with new glossary definitions of these terms. Contents of the major subdivisions of animal life are updated to reflect new phylogenetic hypotheses.
Chapter 11 includes three new glossary terms: ancoracyst, mixotrophy, and trogocytosis, plus a revised description of red tide in a Key
Theme. New descriptions of clades Holomyota and Holozoa (within Opisthokonta) appear with an associated revised Figure 11.36. Chapter 12 has a new opening essay and a revised section on the origin of animals, with bioactive compounds now a Key Theme. Class Myxozoa has been added to Chapter 13 (full description) and to the associated cladogram in Figure 13.2. Phylum Xenacoelomorpha is now included in Chapter 14: Xenoturbellida, previously in Chapter 22, is now considered a protostome related to acoelomorph flatworms and not a deuterostome, so it has been allied with Acoelomorpha as Xenacoelomorpha. The figure from Chapter 22 is now Figure 14.2. The phylogeny section explains the revision of the group. Chapter 14 also contains a revised Key Theme on schistosomiasis. In Chapter 15, clade Kryptrochozoa has been removed in favor of the more inclusive group Trochozoa, with an associated change in the cladogram, Figure 15.1. In Chapter 17, Phylum Sipuncula has been demoted and placed within Phylum Annelida; the cladogram in
Figure 17.1 is revised to accommodate this change. Several new section numbers added to Chapter 17 make it easier to follow major topics. Chapter 18 contains a new Key Theme on cryptobiosis and its applications to storing blood. Chapter 21 contains a new Key Theme on Varroa mites and bee colony collapse disorder. The opening essay
has updated statistics on locust outbreaks. Several new section numbers were added here to make it easier to follow major topics. Chapter 22 includes a revised Key Theme essay on Crown-of-Thorns sea-star outbreaks and one on Diadema sea urchin outbreaks.
Figure 22.3 is revised to include new echinoderm fossil groups, which are discussed in the echinoderm phylogeny section. Several new section numbers make it easier to follow major topics.
Chapter 23 features consolidation of material on early chordate evolution into a single section, and improved art for the cladogram, chordate characters, and vertebrate innovations. New text is added to explain problems with using Linnean taxonomy in chordates, and why an unranked system is favored for higher chordate taxonomy.
This material applies as well to the other vertebrate chapters. Taxonomy and species numbers are updated. The biology and ecology of amphioxus get increased treatment to match that of sea squirts and to introduce traits discussed in the vertebrate chapters. New material on early vertebrate evolution includes the early chordate Metaspriggina.
In Chapter 24, the introduction is modestly revised to outline the contents of the chapter. A single table now consolidates characteristics of the four major fish groups, allowing easy comparison among groups. Teleost suction feeding is expanded to emphasize its importance and to contrast it with feeding in terrestrial vertebrates. Shark reproduction is rewritten to emphasize continuity of reproductive mechanisms.
Chapter 25 is reorganized into a greater number of sections with an expanded summary and some new information on temnospondyls as a source of modern amphibians. Numbers of species are updated to represent recent discoveries of cryptic species in many taxa. The introduction to Chapter 26 is reorganized to outline the chapter’s contents. Changes to the section on amniote adaptations include revised coverage of respiration, circulation, and special sensory systems. Some material on limb positions was moved to the mammal chapter. New text on squamate reproduction complements coverage for turtles, crocodilians, and tuataras. Material on snake venom is rewritten for clarity. The section on dinosaur systematics is updated.
Chapter 27 includes a new paragraph on early bird evolution in the Cretaceous and Paleogene, and an extensive rewrite on dinosaur ancestry of birds. We revised the sections on fluid dynamics of avian flight and the respiratory cycle. An expanded boxed essay now covers lead poisoning of condors. We reduce usage of the somewhat awkward term “nonavian reptile” for the traditional Class Reptilia.
Chapter 28 features a substantial new section on early mammalian evolution and on the megafauna of the Pleistocene. Updates include mammalian dentition and feeding, migration of bats, and decline of caribou populations in North America. Coverage of mammalian population ecology was reduced to avoid redundancy with
Chapter 38. Human evolution is revised to include new research on Australopithecus, Homo heidelbergensis, and Denisovans.
Part Four, Activity of Life
Chapter 30 includes new information on how mixing of freshwater and seawater at the ebbing of tides produces physiological challenges for aquatic animals. Oncotic pressure (colloid osmotic pressure) is added as a force opposing blood hydrostatic pressure and as a factor that produces edema in blood or interstitial fluid. New emphasis is placed on the relationship between surface area and volume in mammals’ ability to withstand cold environmental temperatures. Chapter 31 includes a new Key Theme on hypertension and associated kidney disease. Chapter 32 adds breakdown of nucleic acids to the section on digestion. Chapter 33 features redrawn Figures 33.7 and 33.8, with channels shown as opening when the neurotransmitter binds. In Chapter 34 a new Key Theme lists the heart as an endocrine organ producing atrial natriuritic peptide.
New information is added on the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin in social behavior and the use of oxytocin as a treatment for autism spectrum disorders. In Chapter 36, polyandry is now illustrated with the example of Galápagos hawks.
Part Five, Animals and Their Environments
In Chapter 37, a new Key Theme is added on the demand for fresh water and how global warming challenges our supply of fresh water.
Information on the Peruvian anchoveta fishery is updated. Chapter 38 is restructured into more sections to coordinate the learning objectives and chapter summary. The growth of human populations and the taxonomic status of Galápagos finches are updated.
TEACHING AND LEARNING AIDS
To help students in vocabulary development, key words are boldfaced and derivations of technical and zoological terms are provided, along with generic names of animals where they first appear in the text. In this way students gradually become familiar with the more common roots that form many technical terms. An extensive glossary provides pronunciation, derivation, and definition for many terms, including new ones added to the glossary or existing ones rewritten for this edition.
A distinctive feature of this text is a prologue for each chapter that highlights a theme or fact relating to the chapter. Some prologues present biological, particularly evolutionary, principles; those in Part Three on animal diversity illuminate distinguishing characteristics of the group presented in the chapter. Again, William C. Ober and Claire W. Ober have strengthened the art program for this text with many new full-color paintings that replace older art, or that illustrate new material. Bill’s artistic skills, knowledge of biology, and experience gained from an earlier career as a practicing physician have enriched this text through 10 of its editions. Claire practiced pediatric and obstetric nursing before turning to scientific illustration as a full-time career. Texts illustrated by Bill and Claire have received national recognition and won awards from the Association of Medical Illustrators, American Institute of Graphic Arts, Chicago Book Clinic, Printing Industries of America, and Bookbuilders West. They are also recipients of the Art Directors Award
|Download Ebook||Read Now||File Type||Upload Date|
|October 8, 2021|
Do you like this book? Please share with your friends, let's read it !! :)How to Read and Open File Type for PC ?