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Introduction to Biotechnology, Global Edition, 4th Edition



Introduction to Biotechnology, Global Edition, 4th Edition PDF

Author: William Thieman

Publisher: Pearson

Genres:

Publish Date: November 25, 2019

ISBN-10: 1292261773

Pages: 448

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

It is hard to imagine a more exciting time to be studying biotechnology. We began the preface with this statement in the first edition of Introduction to Biotechnology and this still holds true today. Advances are occurring at a dizzying pace, and biotechnology has made an impact on many aspects of our everyday lives. Now in its fourth edition, Introduction to Biotech-nology remains the first biotechnology textbook writ-ten specifically for the diverse backgrounds of undergraduate students. Introduction to Biotechnology provides students with the tools for practical success in the biotechnology industry through its balanced coverage of a range of scientific disciplines, details on contemporary techniques and applications, the busi-ness of biotechnology, integration of ethical issues, coverage of important regulatory considerations, and career guidance.
Introduction to Biotechnology was designed with sev- eral major goals in mind. The text aims to provide:

■ An engaging and easy-to-understand narrative that is appropriate for a diverse student audience with varying levels of scientific knowledge.
■ Assistance to instructors teaching all major areas of biotechnology and help to students learning fundamental scientific concepts without over- whelming and excessive detail.
■ An overview of historic applications while em- phasizing modern, cutting-edge, and emerging areas of biotechnology.
■ Insights on how biotechnology applications can provide some of the tools to solve important scientific and societal problems for the benefit of humankind and the environment.
■ Inspiration for students to consider the many ethi-cal issues associated with biotechnology. Introduction to Biotechnology provides broad coverage of topics including cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, bioinformatics, genetics, genomics, proteomics, and others. We have striven to provide stu-dents with the tools and knowledge they need to under-stand varied and diverse areas of biotechnology.

In our effort to introduce students to the cutting- edge techniques and applications of biotechnology, we have dedicated specific chapters to constantly emerging areas such as microbial biotechnology (Chapter 5), agricultural biotechnology (Chapter 6), animal biotech-nology (Chapter 7), forensic biotechnology (Chapter 8), bioremediation (Chapter 9), aquatic biotechnology (Chapter 10), and medical biotechnology (Chapter 11). Consideration of the many regulatory agencies and issues that affect the bio-technology industry are discussed in Chapter 12. In addition to the ethical issues included in each chapter as You Decide boxes, a separate chapter (Chapter 13) is dedicated to ethics and biotechnology.
New to the Fourth Edition

The fourth edition of Introduction to Biotechnology is thor-oughly updated and includes several new features:

■ Case Studies—New to this edition, each end-of-chapter question set, except for chapter 1, now concludes with a Case Study. We present an example of interesting, current research or a recent discovery related to the chapter content, provide a brief summary, and ask students to con-sider relevant questions. Two goals of the feature are (1) to engage students with contemporary research and (2) to ask higher order questions that require students to think critically.
■ Expanded sets of end-of-chapter Questions
& Activities, including more Internet-based exercises. Each chapter now has 20 Questions & Activities to provide a broader range of assess-ment options to help students learn.
■ New You Decide entries have been added to stimulate student interest in, and critical thinking about, controversial areas of biotechnology related to legal, ethical, and social issues. We have expanded from 29 to 37 total You Decide boxes integrated throughout the chapters. Eighteen are new, and they cover topics such as the labeling of genetically modified foods (Chapter 6), genetic screening to improve breast cancer prevention (Chapter 8), human consumption of transgenic salmon (Chapter 10), human embryo and germ-line editing (Chapter 11), regulating biotechnol-ogy beyond traditional settings (Chapter 12), and potential fast track approval of genetically modi-fied wheat to help humans suffering from gluten intolerance (Chapter 13).

■ Nearly 70 new figures and 40 new photos help simplify and explain complex topics in biotechnology.
■ Career Profiles—New profiles have been devel-oped for all chapters and contributed by profes-sionals working in biotechnology. These profiles are designed to help students appreciate the wide range of careers available in the biotechnology industry, with tips and perspectives from experts doing the work. Career Profiles are available
at the Companion Website where we can keep information up to date. Each profile includes a photo and background of the individual to help personalize his or her career stories.
In addition, each chapter has been thoroughly revised and updated to provide students with current information in all areas of biotechnology. Of special note are the following changes:

■ Chapter 1: The Biotechnology Century and Its Workforce. Includes an updated overview of key topics to be discussed in the book, organized by chapter; the current state and trends of the biotechnology industry and its workforce; bio-technology and pharmaceutical company reve-nues; funding sources for starting a biotechnology company; trends in drug development; and a brief future example of precision medicine. We have added new coverage of Do-It-Yourself bio-technology, an introduction to industrial biotech-nology, an introduction to genome editing by CRISPR; and several new figures.
■ Chapter 2: An Introduction to Genes and Genomes. Includes streamlined content, a new section on noncoding RNAs, and a new section titled “Immune Response Mechanism in Prokary-otes Results in Extraordinary New Technology for Editing Genes In Vitro and In Vivo,” which provides an introduction to genome editing by CRISPR-Cas and its roles in biotechnology.
■ Chapter 3: Recombinant DNA Technology and Genomics. Includes condensed content on different types of vectors, as well as streamlined or eliminated coverage of libraries, mapping, Southern blotting, and microarrays reflecting a shift from these technologies and increased use of sequencing and other applications. Updated content on the Human Genome Project includes restructured content on “After the Human Genome Project,” which focuses on ENCODE and personal genomics, whole exome sequencing, and single-cell sequencing. Major content updates have been made to DNA sequencing technolo-gies, including a new section and figure on “third-generation sequencing.” Additional new content includes RNA sequencing; analyzing gene func-tion via protein expression, gene mutagenesis, and RNAi ; gene editing via transgenics, knock-outs, and CRISPR; and a new section on systems biology and synthetic biology.

■ Chapter 4: Proteins as Products. Explains why protein drugs produced by genetically engi-neered living organisms have largely supplanted pharmaceutical production methods; disease discoveries that have been made using new gene canceling technologies; instrumentation improvements for protein purification and iden-tification; detection of significant protein-protein interactions; progress in identifying protein bio-markers that can detect disease at earlier stages; and the analysis of a contemporary study of pro-tein interaction.
■ Chapter 5: Microbial Biotechnology. Includes new content on whole genome sequencing; metagenomics and the Human Microbiome Proj-ect; vaccine development and major targets for new vaccines; synthetic genomes; and a new section on phage therapy, including a figure on CRISPR-Cas editing to treat antibiotic resistant microbes. In addition, there’s a new You Decide box titled: “‘Gain of Function’ Experiments and Engineering Viral Pathogens.”
■ Chapter 6: Plant Biotechnology. Recognizes the impact of biotechnology on agricultural production in the world; briefly explains contemporary meth-ods used to produce new plant products; discusses methods for using engineered gene vectors that can transfer genes for new products and insect resis-tance; provides a current list of genetically modi-fied plants including their mechanism of action; discusses the expanding use of transgenic crops in developing countries; describes newly approved crops using gene silencing technology and the effect it has had on the USDA approval process; discuses the details of the new labeling of GM foods; and provides analysis of a contemporary study of an alternative method for insect resistance. There are two new You Decide boxes: “Labeling GM Foods” and “Is Roundup Toxic to the Environment?”

■ Chapter 7: Animal Biotechnology. Includes a shift in direction from drugs to vaccines for humans of all ages and the rationale behind
it; the significance of animal testing for drugs toward treatments for animal diseases; the ben-efits of cell-culture testing before animal test-ing for regulatory approval; the first approval of a drug produced in a transgenic goat to treat a type of stroke; new method for creating animals with gene knockouts and knock-ins; and the importance of a national project to determine the function of all the genes in a rat by using knock-out technology. Two new You Decide boxes are included: “Can Gene Editing in Chickens Prevent Avian Flu Transfer to Humans?” and “Humans to Pets to Humans: Will the Public Accept This Type of Animal Testing?”
■ Chapter 8: DNA Fingerprinting and Forensic Analysis. Includes the process for comparing DNA profiles with the new CODIS markers; the exclusion process for elimina-tion of human suspects using profile exam-ples; improvements in “touch DNA” analysis methods; the progress in utilizing personal DNA sequence markers as a precursor to diagnosis; new examples of DNA sequences to identify certified products; and the analysis of a contemporary example of human DNA contamination in a mouse DNA profile. Two new You Decide boxes are included: “Could Genetic Screening Improve Breast Cancer Prevention?” and “Will Rapid DNA Testing at a Crime Scene Help Law Enforcement?”
■ Chapter 9: Bioremediation. Includes updated content on genomics and GM species for biore-mediation, updates on the effects of bioremedia-tion at the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, new content and figure on endocrine disruptors, and a new section on ocean pollution by macro- and microplastics.
■ Chapter 10: Aquatic Biotechnology. Includes new and revised content on aquaculture, cover-age of the AquAdvantage salmon as the first GM animal approved by the U.S. FDA for human consumption, bioprospecting and recently approved novel medicines from aquatic species, a new Tools of the Trade on eDNA and environ-mental monitoring, and a new You Decide box: “Transgenic Salmon for Human Consumption: Safe or Not?”
■ Chapter 11: Medical Biotechnology. Because of the rapid pace of change and progress in this field, Medical Biotechnology has undergone the most significant revision of all the chapters in the book. This includes reorganized and revised content on detecting and diagnosing human disease conditions, including new content on biomarkers and cell-free DNA; prognostic and diagnostic genetic tests; updates on approaches for genetic testing, including a new section on sequence analysis of individual genomes that explores the impact of whole genome sequenc-ing including exon sequencing, sequencing and screening fetal genes from the mater-
nal bloodstream, and pre-conception testing; updates on personal genomics to include RNA sequencing and single-cell sequencing; and a new section and figure on genome-wide asso-ciation analysis. The chapter includes a renamed and revised section, Precision Medicine and Biotechnology; new content on the Precision Medicine Initiative and examples of cutting edge approaches including nanomedicine; and a new section on immunotherapies, including recently approved FDA immunotherapies using CAR-T cells that have been highly successful. It also includes revised and new content on gene therapy approaches, including CRISPR-Cas and recent trials with therapeutic RNA; and new and updated content on regenerative medicine, including new sections on 3D bioprinting of tissues, engineered organoids and organs, and updates on stem cell technologies and regu-lations. Nine new figures accompany these changes along with two new You Decide boxes: “Genetics Testing: Destiny Tests?” and “Human Embryo and Germline Editing.”

■ Chapter 12: Biotechnology Regulations. Includes an overview of international regula-tions; describes how FAO, the WHO, and the OIE contribute to the regulation of biotechnology products; explains how the Cartagena Protocol oversees the safe handling, transfer, and use of living-modified organisms; describes how the fair and equitable sharing of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture happens; and explains how patents on biotechnology products are pro-tected under international regulations. Two new You Decide boxes ask: “How Should We Regu-late Biotechnology Beyond Traditional Settings?” and “Should There be a Global Ban on Human Genome Editing?”
■ Chapter 13: Ethics and Biotechnology. Includes reorganized content and an abbreviated chapter format beginning with Examples of Ethics and Biotechnology that includes new content on mitochondrial replacement therapy and so called “three-parent babies.” There is new information on genome editing and germline modification, new content on ethical issues related to gene pat-ents and CRISPR-Cas, and six new You Decide boxes: “Should GM Wheat (for Gluten Sufferers) Be Approved Quickly?,” “What Would Be the Effect of Banning GM Organisms?,” “How Much Return on the Investment?,” “Animal Organ Acceptance,” “Regenerative Medicine: For the Rich Only?,” and “Genome Hackers and ‘Anony-mous’ Genomes Identify Individual DNA Donors.”


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