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Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles 2nd Edition

Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles 2nd Edition PDF

Author: Stephen P. Mackessy

Publisher: CRC Press


Publish Date: May 25, 2021

ISBN-10: 0367149745

Pages: 680

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

It has been 10 years since the first edition of the Handbook was published, and the field of toxinology has changed extensively. This second edition represents a greatly expanded version of the first edition, with an attempt to capture much of the recent developments in the field, and most of it is new material, with many new authors. The format is similar to the first edition, but the information contained in this second edition is a complement to the first rather than a replacement. The six sections of this edition present current information from many of the leading researchers and physicians in toxinology (defined broadly), and topics range from functional morphology, evolution and ecology to biochemistry, crystallography, -omics technologies and more. With the recent recognition (again) by the World Health Organization of snakebite as a neglected tropical disease, there has been renewed effort by many agencies, including non-governmental organizations and governmental groups, to address this scourge, which differentially afflicts those least able to afford the necessary treatment. To this end, the section on snakebite has been expanded and includes several chapters dealing with the problem broadly and with new technologies and the promises these new approaches may hold to counter the deleterious effects of envenomation.

Shortly after the first edition was published, I attended the European section meeting of the International Society on Toxinology, held in Valencia, Spain and hosted by Dr. Juan Calvete and colleagues. As a regular attendee of International Society on Toxinology conferences, I was aware of the general rate of progress in toxinology, which had increased in recent years, but I was unprepared for the exponential increase in level of technical complexity, detail and sophistication seen at the presentations given in Valencia. I remember thinking “Well, maybe it’s time to hang it up, move to a different field, before I’m swept away by this tidal wave of progress”. However, I did not leave the field, and it has been very satisfying to see how toxinology, particularly those areas concerned with analyses of reptile venoms, has developed and matured since that time. I have also had the good fortune to collaborate with many excellent scientists on a variety of topics dealing with venomous snakes and their venoms, and it is through collaborations like these, with individuals having expertise in many different areas, that even more rapid progress can occur.

This second edition is being assembled under one of the most unusual global health crises to arise in modern times, certainly in my lifetime – the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Covid-19 pandemic, currently (January 17, 2021) afflicting nearly 95 million people globally. In spite of this, and the many challenges that this pandemic has caused for everyone, the authors of the chapters contained herein have been responsive and timely in their submissions, and I greatly appreciate and thank them for their efforts.

In the 10 years since the last volume, many of the most prominent names in toxinology and herpetology have passed, including Findlay E. Russell, David Chiszar, Hobart M. Smith, Kenneth V. Kardong and most recently, Alan L. Harvey. I had the great fortune to interact with all these fine scientists, have benefited tremendously from these experiences and am grateful to have had the opportunity to know them. Their contributions to the field are extensive, the impact of their work remains significant and timely, and they are greatly missed. I would like to express particular gratitude to Ken Kardong, my PhD advisor and mentor, for his patience and guidance during my years at Washington State University, and to David Chiszar for his advice and support at an early point in my career and for continuing collaborations.

No projects exist in a vacuum, and this book is no exception. I thank my many students, graduate and undergraduate, for their excellent efforts in research, which have produced many fine papers, and I congratulate them on their many successes. In particular, I would like to acknowledge the outstanding work of Dr. Anthony Saviola, Dr. Cassandra Modahl and PhD candidate Cara Smith – your work is inspirational and has contributed greatly to the success of our lab. Collaborations with visiting and other scientists, including Dr. Ashis Mukherjee and Dr. María Elisa Peichoto, have greatly enhanced my lab and the experiences for my students, and ongoing collaborative work with Dr. Todd A. Castoe and his group has opened up many new research directions involving venomous snake genomics. Finally, I would like to recognize the love, help, support and encouragement of my life partner, Dr. Debra Kaye Holman, and the love and encouragement of my daughter, Elizabeth K. Mackessy; I dedicate this book to Kaye and Elizabeth, and to my brothers and sisters, Denise, Kristine, Tom, John and Eileen.



About the Editor


SECTION I Introduction and Technologies Used in Toxinology

Chapter 1 Reptile Venoms and Toxins: Unlimited Opportunities for Basic and Applied Research

Stephen P. Mackessy

Chapter 2 Present and Future of Snake Venom Proteomics Profiling

Juan J. Calvete and Bruno Lomonte

Chapter 3 Applications of Genomics and Related Technologies for Studying Reptile Venoms

Drew R. Schield, Blair W. Perry, Giulia I.M. Pasquesi, Richard W. Orton, Zachary L. Nikolakis, Aundrea K. Westfall and Todd A. Castoe

Chapter 4 Snake Venom Gland Transcriptomics

Cassandra M. Modahl and Rajeev Kungur Brahma

Chapter 5 X-ray Crystallography and Structural Studies of Toxins

Vinícius Lucatelle da Silva, Ricardo Barros Mariutti, Mônika Aparecida Coronado, Raphael Josef Eberle, Fábio Rogério de Moraes and Raghuvir Krishnaswamy Arni

Chapter 6 Envenomations and Treatment: Translating between the Bench and the Bedside

Nicklaus Brandehoff and Jordan Benjamin

Chapter 7 Current Assessment of the State of Snake Venom Toxinological Research with a View to the Future

Sarah Natalie Cirilo Gimenes and Jay W. Fox

SECTION II Venom Gland Structure, Systematics and Ecology

Chapter 8 Reptile Venom Glands: Form, Function, Future, Concepts and Controversies

Scott A. Weinstein

Chapter 9 Advances in Venomous Snake Systematics, 2009–2019

Wolfgang Wüster

Chapter 10 Biochemical Ecology of Venomous Snakes

Cara F. Smith and Stephen P. Mackessy

Chapter 11 Resistance of Native Species to Reptile Venoms

Danielle H. Drabeck

SECTION III Reptile Venom Non-Enzymatic Toxins

Chapter 12 Three-Finger Toxins

Rajeev Kungur Brahma, Cassandra M. Modahl and R. Manjunatha Kini

Chapter 13 Myotoxin a, Crotamine and Defensin Homologs in Reptile Venoms

Lucas C. Porta, Pedro Z. Amaral, Paulo Z. Amaral and Mirian A. F. Hayashi

Chapter 14 Reptile Venom Disintegrins

Anthony J. Saviola and Juan J. Calvete

Chapter 15 Reptile Venom Cysteine-Rich Secretory Proteins

María Elisa Peichoto and Marcelo Larami Santoro

Chapter 16 Bradykinin-Potentiating and Related Peptides from Reptile Venoms

Daniel Carvalho Pimenta and Patrick Jack Spencer

Chapter 17 Exendin-4 and Its Related Peptides

Michelle Khai Khun Yap and Nurhamimah Misuan

Chapter 18 Reptile Venom C-Type Lectins

Kenneth J. Clemetson

Chapter 19 Snake Venom Kunitz-type Inhibitors and Cystatins – Structure and Function

Elda E. Sánchez, Emelyn Salazar, Montamas Suntravat and Francisco Torres

Chapter 20 Small Molecular Constituents of Snake Venoms

Alejandro Villar-Briones and Steven D. Aird

Chapter 21 Cobra Venom Factor: Structure, Function, Biology, Research Tool, and Drug Lead

Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, Brian E. Hew and David C. Fritzinger

Chapter 22 Snake Toxins Targeting Diverse Ion Channels

Matan Geron and Avi Priel

SECTION IV Reptile Venom Enzyme Toxins

Chapter 23 Thrombin-Like Serine Proteinases in Reptile Venoms

Stephen D. Swenson, Samantha Stack and Francis S. Markland Jr.

Chapter 24 Snake Venom Metalloproteinases

Charlotte A. Dawson, Stuart Ainsworth, Laura-Oana Albulescu and Nicholas R. Casewell

Chapter 25 Snake Venom Matrix Metalloproteinases (svMMPs): Alternative Proteolytic Enzymes in Rear-Fanged Snake Venoms

Inácio L. M. Junqueira-de-Azevedo and Juan David Bayona-Serrano

Chapter 26 Snake Venom Phospholipase A2 Toxins

Bruno Lomonte and Igor Križaj

Chapter 27 Reptile Venom L-Amino Acid Oxidases – Structure and Function

Juliana P. Zuliani, Mauro V. Paloschi, Adriana S. Pontes, Charles N. Boeno, Jéssica A. Lopes, Sulamita S. Setubal, Fernando B. Zanchi and Andreimar M. Soares

Chapter 28 Snake Venom Nucleases, Nucleotidases and Phosphomonoesterases

Jüri Siigur and Ene Siigur

Chapter 29 Reptile Venom Acetylcholinesterases

Mushtaq Ahmed, Wasim Ahmad, Nadia Mushtaq, Rehmat Ali Khan and Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger

Chapter 30 Inhibitors of Reptile Venom Toxins

Ana F. Gómez Garay, Jorge J. Alfonso, Anderson M. Kayano, Juliana C. Sobrinho, Cleopatra A. S. Caldeira, Rafaela Diniz-Sousa, Fernando B. Zanchi, Andreimar M. Soares and Juliana P. Zuliani

SECTION V Global Approaches to Envenomations and Treatments

Chapter 31 Snakebite Envenomation as a Neglected Tropical Disease: New Impetus for Confronting an Old Scourge

José María Gutiérrez

Chapter 32 Current Industrial Production of Snake Antivenoms

Mariángela Vargas, Melvin Sánchez, Andrés Hernández, Aarón Gómez, Mauricio Arguedas, Andrés Sánchez, Laura Sánchez, Mauren Villalta, María Herrera and Álvaro Segura

Chapter 33 Antivenom in the Age of Recombinant DNA Technology

Andreas H. Laustsen

Chapter 34 Epidemiology and Treatment of Reptile Envenomations in the United States

Daniel E. Keyler and Nicklaus Brandehoff

Chapter 35 Envenomations by Reptiles in Mexico

Edgar Neri-Castro, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Jorge López de León, Leslie Boyer and Alejandro Alagón

Chapter 36 Snakebite Envenomation in Central America: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment

José María Gutiérrez

Chapter 37 Snakebite in Southeast Asia: Envenomation and Clinical Management

Nget Hong Tan, Kae Yi Tan and Choo Hock Tan

Chapter 38 Snake Envenomation: Therapy and Challenges in India

Ashis K. Mukherjee, Bhargab Kalita, Sumita Dutta, Aparup Patra, Chitta R. Maiti and Dileep Punde

Chapter 39 Snakebite in Africa: Current Situation and Urgent Needs

Jean-Philippe Chippaux

Chapter 40 Approaches to Snake Envenomation in Southern Africa

James Pattinson, George Oosthuizen, Colin R. Tilbury and Darryl Wood

SECTION VI Reptile Venoms – Production and as a Source of Therapeutics

Chapter 41 Large-Scale Snake Colonies for Venom Production: Considerations and Challenges

Kristen L. Wiley and James R. Harrison

Chapter 42 Toxins to Drugs – Biochemistry and Pharmacology

Zoltan Takacs


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