Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (MasteringChemistry)
This textbook and its related digital resources provide students in the allied health sciences with a needed background in chemistry and biochemistry while offering a general context for chemical concepts to ensure that students in other disciplines gain an appreciation of the importance of chemistry in everyday life.
To teach chemistry all the way from “What is an atom?” to “How do we get energy from glucose?” is a challenge. Throughout our general chemistry and organic chemistry coverage, the focus is on concepts fundamental to the chemistry of living things and everyday life. In our biochemistry coverage, we strive to meet the further challenge of providing a context for the application of those concepts in biological systems. Our goal is to provide enough detail for thorough understanding while avoiding so much detail that students are overwhelmed. Many practical and relevant examples are included to illustrate the concepts and enhance student learning.
The material covered is ample for a two-term introduction to general, organic, and biological chemistry. While the general and early organic chapters contain concepts that are fundamental to understanding the material in biochemistry, the later chapters can be covered individually and in an order that can be adjusted to meet the needs of the students and the duration of the course.
The writing style is clear and concise and punctuated with practical and familiar examples from students’ personal experience. Art work, diagrams, and molecular models are used extensively to provide graphical illustration of concepts to enhance student understanding. Since the true test of knowledge is the ability to apply that knowledge appropriately, we include numerous worked examples that incorporate consistent problem-solving strategies.
Regardless of their career paths, all students will be citizens in an increasingly technological society. When they recognize the principles of chemistry at work not just in their careers but in their daily lives, they are prepared to make informed decisions on scientific issues based on a firm understanding of the underlying concepts.
New to This Edition
The major themes of this revision are active learning, an increased focus on clinical examples, updates based on current teaching and research findings, and digital innovations designed to engage and personalize the experience for students, all of which are accomplished in a variety of ways:
• NEW! Chapter opening photos and vignettes with an increased clinical focus have been added to provide a theme for each chapter and to strengthen connections between the concepts and applications in Chemistry in Action features in the chapter.
• NEW! Chapters now have a more focused roadmap that begins with specific learning objectives and ends with a summary study guide that addresses these initial goals and offers students targeted problems designed to help them assess their ability to understand those topics.
• NEW! Hands-On Chemistry boxes offer students an opportunity to solidify their understanding of chemistry through elementary experiments that can be safely done in their living spaces with household items. Many students strongly benefit from kinesthetic activities, and regardless of whether this is their “preferred” style, the evidence suggests that variety in exposure to concepts is by itself tremendously valuable.
• NEW! Interactive Worked Examples have been developed and are identified in the text with special icons.
• NEW! In-chapter questions have been added to the Chemistry in Action and Mastering Reactions features to reinforce the connection between the chapter content and practical applications.
• NEW! Concept Maps have been added to most chapters, and others have been modified to draw connections between general, organic, and biological chemistry.
• Updated Concept Links offer visual reminders for students that indicate when new material builds on concepts from previous chapters or foreshadow related material that will be explained in more detail in future chapters.
• Updated questions in the end-of-chapter section build on Concept Links and require students to recall information learned in previous chapters.
• Chemistry in Action features (many with a clinical focus) extend the discussion of major chapter topics in new ways, providing students with enhanced perspective on core concepts relevant to their future careers.
• All Learning Objectives tied to EOC problem sets: Chapter summaries include a list of EOC problems that correspond to the learning objectives for a greater connection between problems and concepts.
• NEW! Group Problems at the end of every chapter are ideally used in class to get students to carefully think about higher level problems, such as how concepts fit together, or to put the concepts they have learned to use in a clinical application.
• Chapters 1 and 2 have been restructured: Chapter 1 focuses on building math skills, while Chapter 2 focuses on matter, atomic structure, and the periodic table.
• An expanded discussion of stereochemistry and chirality has been moved to Chapter 14 to allow instructors and students more time to get used to this challenging topic before coming across it again in biochemistry. The concept of symmetry has also been introduced in this section.
• Chapter 16 is now the chapter on amines, allowing the discussion of organic bases and acids (Chapter 17) to flow together, whereas in the seventh edition, they were separated by the ketone and aldehyde chapter, which is now Chapter 15.
• Chapter 20 is now the chapter on carbohydrates, preceding the discussion of energy generation (now Chapter 21) and carbohydrate metabolism.
• Chapter 25 is now the chapter on protein metabolism, completing the discussions of metabolism before addressing DNA (Chapter 26) and Genomics (Chapter 27).
• The Use of SI Units: All the units in this edition have been converted to SI units, except where a non-SI unit is commonly used in scientific, technical, and commercial literature in most regions.
General Chemistry: Chapters 1–11 The introduction to elements, atoms, the periodic table, and the quantitative nature of chemistry (Chapters 1 and 2) is followed by chapters that individually highlight the nature of ionic and molecular compounds (Chapters 3 and 4).
The next three chapters discuss chemical reactions and their stoichiometry, energies, rates, and equilibria (Chapters 5, 6, and 7). Topics relevant to the chemistry of life follow: Gases, Liquids, and Solids (Chapter 8); Solutions (Chapter 9); and Acids and Bases (Chapter 10). Nuclear Chemistry (Chapter 11) closes the general chemistry sequence.
Organic Chemistry: Chapters 12–17 These chapters concisely focus on what students must know in order to understand biochemistry. The introduction to hydrocarbons (Chapters 12 and 13) includes the basics of nomenclature. Discussion of functional groups with single bonds to oxygen, sulfur, or a halogen (Chapter 14) is followed by introducing aldehydes and ketones (Chapter 15), where a double bond between carbon and oxygen plays a key role in their chemistry. A short chapter on organic bases, the amines, which are so important to the chemistry of living things and drugs (Chapter 16) follows. Finally, the chemistry of carboxylic acids and their derivatives (esters and amides) is covered (Chapter 17), with a focus on similarities among the derivatives. Attention to the mechanisms by which organic reactions occur and the vernacular used to describe them has been retained in this edition. Stereochemistry, which is key to the understanding of how biological molecules function as they do, has been moved to Chapter 14 in this edition, allowing students more exposure to this complicated topic before reaching the biological chemistry section of this text.
Biological Chemistry: Chapters 18–29 Rather than proceeding through the complexities of protein, carbohydrate, lipid, and nucleic acid structure before getting to the roles of these compounds in the body, structure and function are integrated in this text. Protein structure (Chapter 18) is followed by enzyme and coenzyme chemistry (Chapter 19).
Next, the structure and functions of common carbohydrates are introduced (Chapter 20). With enzymes and carbohydrates introduced, the central pathways and themes of biochemical energy production can be described (Chapter 21). If the time you have available to cover biochemistry is limited, stop with Chapter 21 and your students will have an excellent preparation in the essentials of metabolism. The following chapters cover more carbohydrate chemistry (Chapter 22), then lipid chemistry (Chapters 23 and 24), followed by protein and amino acid metabolism (Chapter 25). Next, we discuss nucleic acids and protein synthesis (Chapter 26) and genomics (Chapter 27). The last two chapters cover the function of hormones and neurotransmitters and the action of drugs (Chapter 28) and provide an overview of the chemistry of body fluids (Chapter 29).
1 Matter and Measurements 34
2 Atoms and the Periodic Table 76
3 Ionic Compounds 106
4 Molecular Compounds 134
5 Classification and Balancing of Chemical
6 Chemical Reactions: Mole and Mass
7 Chemical Reactions: Energy, Rates,
and Equilibrium 218
8 Gases, Liquids, and Solids 250
9 Solutions 288
10 Acids And Bases 324
11 Nuclear Chemistry 362
12 Introduction to Organic Chemistry:
13 Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic
14 Some Compounds with Oxygen, Sulfur,
or a Halogen 474
15 Aldehydes and Ketones 508
16 Amines 536
17 Carboxylic Acids and Their
18 Amino Acids and Proteins 588
19 Enzymes and Vitamins 624
20 Carbohydrates 660
21 The Generation of Biochemical
22 Carbohydrate Metabolism 724
23 Lipids 748
24 Lipid Metabolism 774
25 Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 796
26 Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis 814
27 Genomics 840
28 Chemical Messengers: Hormones,
Neurotransmitters, and Drugs 858
29 Body Fluids 882
Answers to Selected Problems 911
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|February 4, 2021|
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