Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition
The Eleventh Edition of Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology is a comprehensive textbook that fulfills the needs of today’s students while addressing the concerns of their teachers. We focused our attention on the question “How can we make this information meaningful, manageable, and comprehensible?”
During the revision process, we drew upon our content knowledge, research skills, artistic talents, and years of classroom experience to make this edition the best yet.
The broad changes to this edition are presented in the New to the Eleventh Edition section below, and the specific changes are presented in the Chapter-by-Chapter Changes in the Eleventh Edition section that follows.
New to the Eleventh Edition
In addition to the many technical changes in this edition, such as updated statistics and anatomy and physiology descriptions, we have made the following key changes:
■■ NEW SmartArt Videos help students better navigate key, complex pieces of art. Author Kevin Petti walks students through select pieces of art from the book, providing additional background and detail.
■■ NEW design for homeostasis figures replaces former Tenth Edition figures in various chapters.
■■ NEW Questions have been added to selected figures in all chapters to reinforce text–art integration.
■■ Easier narrative leads to improved clarity of text. Clearly organized text uses simpler, shorter, more active sentences, with a reading level that makes reading and studying easier for students.
■■ Anatomical terms have been updated based on Terminologia Anatomica, Terminologia Histologica, and Terminologia Embryologica. Eponyms continue to be included within the narrative.
Hallmark Features of This Text
■■ 50 Spotlight Figures provide highly visual one- and twopage presentations of tough topics in the book, with a particular focus on physiology.
■■ 29 Clinical Cases get students motivated for their future careers.
Each chapter opens with a story-based Clinical Case related to the chapter content and ends with a Clinical Case Wrap-Up.
■■ The repetition of the chapter-opening Learning Outcomes below the coordinated section headings within the chapters underscores the connection between the HAPS-based Learning Outcomes and the associated teaching points. Author Judi Nath sat on the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) committee that developed the HAPS Learning Outcomes recommended to A&P teachers, and the Learning Outcomes in this book are based on them.
Chapter-by-Chapter Changes in the Eleventh Edition
This annotated Table of Contents provides examples of revision highlights in each chapter of the Eleventh Edition. For a more complete list of changes, please contact the publisher.
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
• Added a new Section 1–1 on using the text and art in tandem.
• New separate section (1-4) on medical terminology.
• Reorganized the chapter to start with simpler anatomical topics and build to more complex physiological ones. Homeostasis and the roles of negative feedback now conclude the chapter as Sections 1–7 and 1–8, respectively.
• NEW Figure 1–1 A Conceptual Framework for Learning
• NEW Clinical Note: Habeas Corpus (“You Shall Have the Body”)
• NEW Clinical Note: The Sounds of the Body
• Figure 1–8 The Control of Room Temperature (new homeostasis design)
• Figure 1–9 Negative Feedback: Control of Body Temperature (new homeostasis design)
• Former Spotlight Figure 1–10 Diagnostic Imaging Techniques is now a Clinical Note.
• Questions added to Figures 1–3, 1–4, 1–5, 1–6, and 1–9.Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization
• Clinical Case: What Is Wrong with My Baby? revised
• Clinical Note: Radiation Sickness revised
• NEW Figure 2–1 Hydrogen Atom with Electron Cloud
• NEW Section 2–9 gathers together coverage of monomers, polymers, and functional groups to provide an overview to the organic compounds.
• Table 2–8.Turnover Times moved to the Appendix as Turnover Times of Organic Components of Four Cell Types.
• NEW Clinical Note: Too Sweet on Sugar?
• Questions added to Figures 2–3, 2–8, 2–9, 2–12, 2–15, 2–17,
2–24, and 2–26.
Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization
• Clinical Case: The Beat Must Go On! revised (new title)
• Figure 3–2 The Plasma Membrane revised (new added part b)
• Figure 3–8 Lysosome Functions revised
• NEW Clinical Note: Lysosomal Storage Disease
• NEW Clinical Note: Free Radicals
• Figure 3–13 The Process of Translation revise
EW Clinical Note: Drugs and the Plasma Membrane
• Figure 3–21 Receptor–Mediated Endocytosis revised
• Spotlight Figure 3–23 Stages of a Cell’s Life Cycle revised
• Questions added to Figures 3–3, 3–9, 3–11, 3–15, 3–17, 3–18, and 3–19.
Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization
• NEW Figure 4–1 An Orientation to the Body’s Tissues
• Figure 4–2 Cell Junctions revised (basal lamina replaces clear layer and reticular lamina replaces dense layer)
• Table 4–1.Classifying Epithelia revised
• Connective tissue proper has been separated out into its own section, Section 4–5. This section now also includes the discussion of fasciae.
• Figure 4–9 The Cells and Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper revised (added fibrocyte)
• Figure 4–10 Embryonic Connective Tissues revised (now share labels)
• The fluid connective tissues blood and lymph now have their own section, Section 4–6.
• Questions added to Figures 4–3, 4–14, 4–16, 4–18, and 4–19. Chapter 5: The Integumentary System
• NEW Clinical Case: He Has Fish Skin!
• Figure 5–1 The Components of the Integumentary System revised
• The dermis and hypodermis sections have been moved up to become Sections 5–2 and 5–3, respectively, to give students more anatomical background to understand the later physiological sections.
• Spotlight Figure 5–3 The Epidermis revised (matched SEM and art)
• NEW Clinical Note: Nips, Tucks, and Shots
• Figure 5–12 Hair Follicles and Hairs revised (new part b)
• Figure 5–14 Sweat Glands revised (uses eccrine sweat glands as primary term)
• NEW Clinical Note: Your Skin, A Mirror of Your Health
• NEW Clinical Note: Burns and Grafts
• NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 5–15 Integration of the INTEGUMENTARY system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
• Questions added to Figures 5–1, 5–6, 5–8, 5–10, and 5–13.
Chapter 6: Bones and Bone Structure (formerly called Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure)
• NEW Figure 6–4 Bone Lacking a Calcified Matrix
• Figure 6–5 Types of Bone Cells revised (art and layout to parallel text)
• NEW Figure 6–6 Osteons of Compact Bone (former part a removed)
• We now clarify in the section titles that Section 6–5 covers both interstitial and appositional growth, while remodeling is covered in Section 6–6.
• Spotlight Figure 6–17 Types of Fractures and Steps in Repair revised (tibia replaces humerus to better match photograph)
• Questions added to Figures 6–3, 6–5, 6–7, and 6–10.Chapter 7: The Axial Skeleton
• Figure 7–2 Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull revised
• Figure 7–3 The Adult Skull revised (hyphenates the terms supraorbital and infra-orbital)
• Figure 7–9 The Ethmoid revised (ethmoidal labyrinth replaces lateral mass)
• Spotlight Figure 7–4 Sectional Anatomy of the Skull revised (updated trigeminal nerve [V] terminology)
• Figure 7–14 The Orbital Complex revised (art and photograph now share labels)
• Figure 7–15 The Nasal Complex revised (part b new art)
• Figure 7–17 The Vertebral Column revised (new color-coded vertebral regions)
• Figure 7–22 Sacrum and Coccyx revised (new coccyx label configuration)
• Questions added to Figures 7–16, 7–17, and 7–23.
Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton
• NEW Clinical Case: Timber!!
• Figure 8–6 Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand revised (carpal bones separated out into proximal and distal carpals)
• NEW Clinical Note: Shin Splints
• Clinical Note: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome includes new illustration
• Questions added to Figures 8–1, 8–6, 8–8, and 8–12. Chapter 9: Joints
• NEW Clinical Note: Bursitis and Bunions
• NEW Clinical Note: Dislocation
• Spotlight Figure 9–2 Joint Movement revised (headings labeled as parts a, b, and c; plane joint replaces gliding joint)
• Figure 9–5 Special Movements (part labels added; arrows moved onto photographs in new parts d and e)
• Section 9–5 now covers the hinge joints of the elbow and knee, while Section 9–6 covers the ball-and-socket shoulder and hip joints.
• NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 9–11 Integration of the SKELETAL system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
• Questions added to Figures 9–1, 9–3, 9–6, and 9–9.Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue
• NEW Clinical Case: Keep on Keepin’ On
• Figure 10–1 The Organization of Skeletal Muscles revised (added tendon attachment to bone)
• Figure 10–5 Sarcomere Structure, Superficial and Cross-Sectional Views revised (new figure icon)
• Figure 10–6 Levels of Functional Organization in a Skeletal Muscle revised (new grouping of art)
• Figure 10–7 Thin and Thick Filaments revised (new art for parts b, c, and d)
• Spotlight Figure 10–9 Events at the Neuromuscular Junction revised (art now shows Na+ flow through membrane channels)
• Spotlight Figure 10–11 The Contraction Cycle and Cross-Bridge Formation revised (improved step boxes visibility)
• Figure 10–16 Effects of Repeated Stimulations revised (new art organization and explanatory text)
• Information about tension production at the level of skeletal muscles has been separated out into a new section, Section 10–6.
• Figure 10–20 Muscle Metabolism revised (text and art in bottom box)
• Figure 10–21 Fast versus Slow Fibers revised (micrograph is a TEM not LM)
• Coverage of muscle fatigue has been moved from the muscle metabolism section to the muscle performance section, Section 10–8.
• NEW Clinical Note: Electromyography
• Discussion on the effects of skeletal muscle aging has been moved from Chapter 11 and included with muscle hypertrophy and atrophy in Section 10–8.
• Questions added to Figures 10–3, 10–6, 10–14, and 10–21. Chapter 11: The Muscular System
• NEW Clinical Case: Downward-Facing Dog
• Figure 11–1 Muscle Types Based on Pattern of Fascicle Organization revised
• Figure 11–2 The Three Classes of Levers revised (new icons for each lever)
• Spotlight Figure 11–3 Muscle Action revised (new art in part c)
• The introduction to axial and appendicular muscles has been made into a separate section, Section 11–5, to provide an overview before we cover the muscles in detail.
• NEW Clinical Note: Signs of Stroke
• Figure 11–12 Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm revised (added transversus thoracis label to part c)
• Figure 11–17 Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand revised (corrected leader for triceps brachii, medial head)
• Figure 11–18 Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers revised
• Figure 11–21 Muscles That Move the Leg revised (quadriceps femoris replaces quadriceps muscles)
• NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 11–24 Integration of the MUSCULAR system with the other body systems presented so far (replaces System Integrator)
• Questions added to Figures 11–5, 11–6, 11–10, 11–17, 11–19, and 11–21. Chapter 12: Nervous Tissue
• Chapter title changed from Neural Tissue to Nervous Tissue
• Section 12–1 includes discussion of the Enteric Nervous System (ENS) as a third division of the nervous system
• Figure 12–1 A Functional Overview of the Nervous System revised (added a body figure to support text-art integration)
• Moved coverage of synapse structures from Section 12–2 into Section 12–7 so it is now right before students need it to understand synaptic function.
• Figure 12–3 Structural Classification of Neurons revised (moved part labels and text above art)
• Figure 12–5 Neuroglia in the CNS revised (deleted micrograph; label grouping for neuroglia)
• Schwann cell text updated (neurolemmocytes replaces neurilemma cells and neurolemma replaces neurilemma).
• Figure 12–7 Peripheral Nerve Regeneration after Injury revised
• Spotlight Figure 12–8 Resting Membrane Potential revised (text revised in first two columns)
• Figure 12–9 Electrochemical Gradients for Potassium and Sodium Ions revised (text revised in part c)
• Figure 12–11 Graded Potentials revised (text in step 2)
• NEW Spotlight Figure 12–13 Generation of an Action Potential revised (text in step boxes)
• Figure 12–14 Propagation of an Action Potential revised (added part labels)
• NEW Figure 12–16 Events in the Functioning of a Cholinergic Synapse revised (now runs across two pages; text in steps revised)
• Table 12–4 Representative Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators revised (endorphins separated from opioids)
• Figure 12–17 Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter and Receptor Function revised (chemically gated ion channel art now matches that in previous figures)
• Questions added to Figures 12–2, 12–4, and 12–16.Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes
• Figure 13–1 An Overview of Chapters 13 and 14 revised
• Figure 13–2 Gross Anatomy of the Adult Spinal Cord revised (added new part b)
• Uses the term posterior and anterior in reference to spinal roots, ganglion, and rami instead of dorsal and ventral (e.g., Figure 13–3,
13–4, 13–5, and Spotlight Figure 13–8)
• Figure 13–6 A Peripheral Nerve revised (corrected magnified section in part a)
• NEW Figure 13–9 Nerve Plexuses and Peripheral Nerves revised (labels grouped and boxed)
• Figure 13–10 The Cervical Plexus revised (corrected cranial nerve designation, e.g., accessory nerve [XI] replaces accessory nerve
• Figure 13–12 The Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses revised (removed Clinical Note)
• Spotlight Figure 13–14 Spinal Reflexes revised (added part labels to better coordinate with text)
• Figure 13–15 The Classification of Reflexes revised (reorganized categories within inclusive boxes)
• Figure 13–17 The Plantar Reflex and Babinski Reflex revised (Babinski reflex replaces Babinski sign/positive Babinski reflex and plantar reflex replaces negative Babinski reflex)
• Questions added to Figures 13–3, 13–5, 13–9, and 13–15. Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves
• Figure 14–1 An Introduction to Brain Structures and Functions revised (added part labels a–f to better coordinate with text)
• Figure 14–2 Ventricular System revised (ventricular system of the brain replaces ventricles of the brain)
• Figure 14–3 The Relationships among the Brain, Cranium, and Cranial Meninges revised periosteal cranial dura replaces dura mater [periosteal layer] and meningeal cranial dura replaces dura mater [meningeal layer])
• Figure 14–5 The Diencephalon and Brainstem revised (corrected cranial nerve designation, e.g., in Cranial Nerves box, CN replaces N for nerve designations.)
• The sections on the midbrain (now Section 14–5) and cerebellum (now Section 14–6) have been switched, so that we now cover all of the brainstem together.
• Figure 14–10 The Thalamus revised (thalamic nuclei labels now color coded to clarify brain regions that receive thalamic input; medial geniculate body and lateral geniculate body replace medial geniculate nucleus and lateral geniculate nucleus)
• Figure 14–18 Origins of the Cranial Nerves revised (new brain cadaver photograph; cranial nerve labels boxed together)
• Questions added to Figures 14–1, 14–3, 14–9, 14–13, 14–15, 14–22, and 14–26
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