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Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition



Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology 11th Edition PDF

Author: Frederic Martini

Publisher: Pearson

Genres:

Publish Date: January 4, 2017

ISBN-10: 0134396022

Pages: 1296

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

The Eleventh Edition of Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology is a comprehensive textbook that fulfills the needs of today’s  students while addressing the concerns of their teachers. We  focused our attention on the question “How can we make this  information meaningful, manageable, and comprehensible?”
During the revision process, we drew upon our content knowledge, research skills, artistic talents, and years of classroom  experience to make this edition the best yet.
The broad changes to this edition are presented in the New  to the Eleventh Edition section below, and the specific changes  are presented in the Chapter-by-Chapter Changes in the Eleventh Edition section that follows.

New to the Eleventh Edition

In addition to the many technical changes in this edition, such  as updated statistics and anatomy and physiology descriptions,  we have made the following key changes:

■■ NEW SmartArt Videos help students better navigate key,  complex pieces of art. Author Kevin Petti walks students  through select pieces of art from the book, providing additional background and detail.
■■ NEW design for homeostasis figures replaces former  Tenth Edition figures in various chapters.
■■ NEW Questions have been added to selected figures in  all chapters to reinforce text–art integration.
■■ Easier narrative leads to improved clarity of text. Clearly organized text uses simpler, shorter, more active  sentences, with a reading level that makes reading and  studying easier for students.
■■ Anatomical terms have been updated based on Terminologia Anatomica, Terminologia Histologica, and Terminologia  Embryologica. Eponyms continue to be included within the narrative.
Hallmark Features of This Text
■■ 50 Spotlight Figures provide highly visual one- and twopage presentations of tough topics in the book, with a  particular focus on physiology.
■■ 29 Clinical Cases get students motivated for their future careers.
Each chapter opens with a story-based Clinical Case related to  the chapter content and ends with a Clinical Case Wrap-Up.
■■ The repetition of the chapter-opening Learning Outcomes below the coordinated section headings within  the chapters underscores the connection between the  HAPS-based Learning Outcomes and the associated teaching  points. Author Judi Nath sat on the Human Anatomy and  Physiology Society (HAPS) committee that developed the  HAPS Learning Outcomes recommended to A&P teachers,  and the Learning Outcomes in this book are based on them.

Chapter-by-Chapter Changes in the Eleventh Edition

This annotated Table of Contents provides examples of revision highlights in each chapter of the Eleventh Edition. For a  more complete list of changes, please contact the publisher.
Chapter 1: An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
• Added a new Section 1–1 on using the text and art in tandem.
• New separate section (1-4) on medical terminology.
• Reorganized the chapter to start with simpler anatomical topics  and build to more complex physiological ones. Homeostasis and  the roles of negative feedback now conclude the chapter as Sections 1–7 and 1–8, respectively.
• NEW Figure 1–1 A Conceptual Framework for Learning
• NEW Clinical Note: Habeas Corpus (“You Shall Have the Body”)
• NEW Clinical Note: The Sounds of the Body
• Figure 1–8 The Control of Room Temperature (new homeostasis design)
• Figure 1–9 Negative Feedback: Control of Body Temperature (new homeostasis design)
• Former Spotlight Figure 1–10 Diagnostic Imaging Techniques is  now a Clinical Note.
• Questions added to Figures 1–3, 1–4, 1–5, 1–6, and 1–9.Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization
• Clinical Case: What Is Wrong with My Baby? revised
• Clinical Note: Radiation Sickness revised
• NEW Figure 2–1 Hydrogen Atom with Electron Cloud
• NEW Section 2–9 gathers together coverage of monomers,  polymers, and functional groups to provide an overview to the  organic compounds.
• Table 2–8.Turnover Times moved to the Appendix as Turnover Times of Organic Components of Four Cell Types.
• NEW Clinical Note: Too Sweet on Sugar?
• Questions added to Figures 2–3, 2–8, 2–9, 2–12, 2–15, 2–17,
2–24, and 2–26.
Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization
• Clinical Case: The Beat Must Go On! revised (new title)
• Figure 3–2 The Plasma Membrane revised (new added part b)
• Figure 3–8 Lysosome Functions revised
• NEW Clinical Note: Lysosomal Storage Disease
• NEW Clinical Note: Free Radicals
• Figure 3–13 The Process of Translation revise

EW Clinical Note: Drugs and the Plasma Membrane
• Figure 3–21 Receptor–Mediated Endocytosis revised
• Spotlight Figure 3–23 Stages of a Cell’s Life Cycle revised
• Questions added to Figures 3–3, 3–9, 3–11, 3–15, 3–17, 3–18, and 3–19.
Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization
• NEW Figure 4–1 An Orientation to the Body’s Tissues
• Figure 4–2 Cell Junctions revised (basal lamina replaces clear layer and reticular lamina replaces dense layer)
• Table 4–1.Classifying Epithelia revised
• Connective tissue proper has been separated out into its own section, Section 4–5. This section now also includes the discussion  of fasciae.
• Figure 4–9 The Cells and Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper  revised (added fibrocyte)
• Figure 4–10 Embryonic Connective Tissues revised (now share  labels)
• The fluid connective tissues blood and lymph now have their  own section, Section 4–6.
• Questions added to Figures 4–3, 4–14, 4–16, 4–18, and 4–19. Chapter 5: The Integumentary System
• NEW Clinical Case: He Has Fish Skin!
• Figure 5–1 The Components of the Integumentary System revised
• The dermis and hypodermis sections have been moved up to  become Sections 5–2 and 5–3, respectively, to give students more  anatomical background to understand the later physiological sections.
• Spotlight Figure 5–3 The Epidermis revised (matched SEM and art)
• NEW Clinical Note: Nips, Tucks, and Shots
• Figure 5–12 Hair Follicles and Hairs revised (new part b)
• Figure 5–14 Sweat Glands revised (uses eccrine sweat glands as primary term)
• NEW Clinical Note: Your Skin, A Mirror of Your Health
• NEW Clinical Note: Burns and Grafts
• NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 5–15 Integration of the INTEGUMENTARY system with the other body systems presented  so far (replaces System Integrator)
• Questions added to Figures 5–1, 5–6, 5–8, 5–10, and 5–13.
Chapter 6: Bones and Bone Structure (formerly called Osseous Tissue  and Bone Structure)
• NEW Figure 6–4 Bone Lacking a Calcified Matrix
• Figure 6–5 Types of Bone Cells revised (art and layout to parallel  text)
• NEW Figure 6–6 Osteons of Compact Bone (former part a  removed)
• We now clarify in the section titles that Section 6–5 covers both  interstitial and appositional growth, while remodeling is covered  in Section 6–6.
• Spotlight Figure 6–17 Types of Fractures and Steps in Repair  revised (tibia replaces humerus to better match photograph)
• Questions added to Figures 6–3, 6–5, 6–7, and 6–10.Chapter 7: The Axial Skeleton
• Figure 7–2 Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull revised
• Figure 7–3 The Adult Skull revised (hyphenates the terms supraorbital and infra-orbital)
• Figure 7–9 The Ethmoid revised (ethmoidal labyrinth replaces  lateral mass)
• Spotlight Figure 7–4 Sectional Anatomy of the Skull revised  (updated trigeminal nerve [V] terminology)
• Figure 7–14 The Orbital Complex revised (art and photograph  now share labels)
• Figure 7–15 The Nasal Complex revised (part b new art)
• Figure 7–17 The Vertebral Column revised (new color-coded  vertebral regions)
• Figure 7–22 Sacrum and Coccyx revised (new coccyx label  configuration)
• Questions added to Figures 7–16, 7–17, and 7–23.
Chapter 8: The Appendicular Skeleton
• NEW Clinical Case: Timber!!
• Figure 8–6 Bones of the Right Wrist and Hand revised (carpal  bones separated out into proximal and distal carpals)
• NEW Clinical Note: Shin Splints
• Clinical Note: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome includes new illustration
• Questions added to Figures 8–1, 8–6, 8–8, and 8–12. Chapter 9: Joints
• NEW Clinical Note: Bursitis and Bunions
• NEW Clinical Note: Dislocation
• Spotlight Figure 9–2 Joint Movement revised (headings labeled  as parts a, b, and c; plane joint replaces gliding joint)
• Figure 9–5 Special Movements (part labels added; arrows moved  onto photographs in new parts d and e)
• Section 9–5 now covers the hinge joints of the elbow and knee, while  Section 9–6 covers the ball-and-socket shoulder and hip joints.
• NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 9–11 Integration of the  SKELETAL system with the other body systems presented so far  (replaces System Integrator)
• Questions added to Figures 9–1, 9–3, 9–6, and 9–9.Chapter 10: Muscle Tissue
• NEW Clinical Case: Keep on Keepin’ On
• Figure 10–1 The Organization of Skeletal Muscles revised (added  tendon attachment to bone)
• Figure 10–5 Sarcomere Structure, Superficial and Cross-Sectional Views revised (new figure icon)
• Figure 10–6 Levels of Functional Organization in a Skeletal Muscle revised (new grouping of art)
• Figure 10–7 Thin and Thick Filaments revised (new art for parts  b, c, and d)
• Spotlight Figure 10–9 Events at the Neuromuscular Junction  revised (art now shows Na+ flow through membrane channels)
• Spotlight Figure 10–11 The Contraction Cycle and Cross-Bridge  Formation revised (improved step boxes visibility)
• Figure 10–16 Effects of Repeated Stimulations revised (new art  organization and explanatory text)
• Information about tension production at the level of skeletal  muscles has been separated out into a new section, Section 10–6.
• Figure 10–20 Muscle Metabolism revised (text and art in bottom box)

• Figure 10–21 Fast versus Slow Fibers revised (micrograph is a TEM  not LM)
• Coverage of muscle fatigue has been moved from the muscle  metabolism section to the muscle performance section,  Section 10–8.
• NEW Clinical Note: Electromyography
• Discussion on the effects of skeletal muscle aging has been  moved from Chapter 11 and included with muscle hypertrophy  and atrophy in Section 10–8.
• Questions added to Figures 10–3, 10–6, 10–14, and 10–21. Chapter 11: The Muscular System
• NEW Clinical Case: Downward-Facing Dog
• Figure 11–1 Muscle Types Based on Pattern of Fascicle Organization revised
• Figure 11–2 The Three Classes of Levers revised (new icons for  each lever)
• Spotlight Figure 11–3 Muscle Action revised (new art in part c)
• The introduction to axial and appendicular muscles has been  made into a separate section, Section 11–5, to provide an overview before we cover the muscles in detail.
• NEW Clinical Note: Signs of Stroke
• Figure 11–12 Oblique and Rectus Muscles and the Diaphragm  revised (added transversus thoracis label to part c)
• Figure 11–17 Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand revised  (corrected leader for triceps brachii, medial head)
• Figure 11–18 Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers revised
• Figure 11–21 Muscles That Move the Leg revised (quadriceps femoris replaces quadriceps muscles)
• NEW Build Your Knowledge Figure 11–24 Integration of the  MUSCULAR system with the other body systems presented so far  (replaces System Integrator)
• Questions added to Figures 11–5, 11–6, 11–10, 11–17, 11–19, and 11–21. Chapter 12: Nervous Tissue
• Chapter title changed from Neural Tissue to Nervous Tissue
• Section 12–1 includes discussion of the Enteric Nervous System  (ENS) as a third division of the nervous system
• Figure 12–1 A Functional Overview of the Nervous System  revised (added a body figure to support text-art integration)
• Moved coverage of synapse structures from Section 12–2 into Section 12–7 so it is now right before students need it to understand  synaptic function.
• Figure 12–3 Structural Classification of Neurons revised (moved  part labels and text above art)
• Figure 12–5 Neuroglia in the CNS revised (deleted micrograph;  label grouping for neuroglia)
• Schwann cell text updated (neurolemmocytes replaces neurilemma  cells and neurolemma replaces neurilemma).
• Figure 12–7 Peripheral Nerve Regeneration after Injury revised
• Spotlight Figure 12–8 Resting Membrane Potential revised (text  revised in first two columns)
• Figure 12–9 Electrochemical Gradients for Potassium and  Sodium Ions revised (text revised in part c)
• Figure 12–11 Graded Potentials revised (text in step 2)
• NEW Spotlight Figure 12–13 Generation of an Action Potential  revised (text in step boxes)
• Figure 12–14 Propagation of an Action Potential revised (added  part labels)
• NEW Figure 12–16 Events in the Functioning of a Cholinergic  Synapse revised (now runs across two pages; text in steps revised)
• Table 12–4 Representative Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators revised (endorphins separated from opioids)
• Figure 12–17 Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter and Receptor  Function revised (chemically gated ion channel art now matches  that in previous figures)
• Questions added to Figures 12–2, 12–4, and 12–16.Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes
• Figure 13–1 An Overview of Chapters 13 and 14 revised
• Figure 13–2 Gross Anatomy of the Adult Spinal Cord revised  (added new part b)
• Uses the term posterior and anterior in reference to spinal roots,  ganglion, and rami instead of dorsal and ventral (e.g., Figure 13–3,
13–4, 13–5, and Spotlight Figure 13–8)
• Figure 13–6 A Peripheral Nerve revised (corrected magnified section in part a)
• NEW Figure 13–9 Nerve Plexuses and Peripheral Nerves revised  (labels grouped and boxed)
• Figure 13–10 The Cervical Plexus revised (corrected cranial nerve  designation, e.g., accessory nerve [XI] replaces accessory nerve
[N XI])
• Figure 13–12 The Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses revised (removed  Clinical Note)
• Spotlight Figure 13–14 Spinal Reflexes revised (added part labels  to better coordinate with text)
• Figure 13–15 The Classification of Reflexes revised (reorganized  categories within inclusive boxes)
• Figure 13–17 The Plantar Reflex and Babinski Reflex revised  (Babinski reflex replaces Babinski sign/positive Babinski reflex and  plantar reflex replaces negative Babinski reflex)
• Questions added to Figures 13–3, 13–5, 13–9, and 13–15. Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves
• Figure 14–1 An Introduction to Brain Structures and Functions  revised (added part labels a–f to better coordinate with text)
• Figure 14–2 Ventricular System revised (ventricular system of the  brain replaces ventricles of the brain)
• Figure 14–3 The Relationships among the Brain, Cranium, and  Cranial Meninges revised periosteal cranial dura replaces dura mater  [periosteal layer] and meningeal cranial dura replaces dura mater  [meningeal layer])
• Figure 14–5 The Diencephalon and Brainstem revised (corrected  cranial nerve designation, e.g., in Cranial Nerves box, CN replaces  N for nerve designations.)
• The sections on the midbrain (now Section 14–5) and cerebellum (now Section 14–6) have been switched, so that we now  cover all of the brainstem together.
• Figure 14–10 The Thalamus revised (thalamic nuclei labels now  color coded to clarify brain regions that receive thalamic input;  medial geniculate body and lateral geniculate body replace medial  geniculate nucleus and lateral geniculate nucleus)
• Figure 14–18 Origins of the Cranial Nerves revised (new brain  cadaver photograph; cranial nerve labels boxed together)
• Questions added to Figures 14–1, 14–3, 14–9, 14–13, 14–15, 14–22, and 14–26


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