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Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science (Springer Reference)



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Author: Robert A. Meyers

Publisher: Springer

Genres:

Publish Date: July 24, 2009

ISBN-10: 387695729

Pages: 10398

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

The Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science is an authoritative single source for understanding and applyingthe basic tenets of complexity and systems theory as well as the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in science, engineering and many areas of social, financial and business interactions. It is written for an audience of advanced university undergraduate and graduate students, professors, and professionals in a wide range of fields who must manage complexity on scales ranging from the atomic and molecular to the societal and global. Each article was selected and peer reviewed by one of our 36 Section Editors with advice and consultation provided by our 15 Board Members and Editor-in-Chief. This level of coordination assures that the reader can have a level of confidence in the relevance and accuracy of the information far exceeding that generally found on the World Wide Web. Accessablilty is also a priority and for this reason each article includes a glossary of important terms and a concise definition of the subject.

Complex systems are systems that comprise many interacting parts with the ability to generate a new quality of collective behavior through self-organization, e. g. the spontaneous formation of temporal, spatial or functional structures. They are therefore adaptive as they evolve and may contain self-driving feedback loops. Thus, complex systems are much more than a sum of their parts. Complex systems are often characterized as having extreme sensitivity to initial conditions as well as emergent behavior that are not readily predictable or even completely deterministic. The conclusion is that a reductionist (bottom-up) approach is often an incomplete description of a phenomenon. This recognition, that the collective behavior of the whole system cannot be simply inferred from the understanding of the behavior of the individual components, has led tomany new concepts and sophisticated mathematical andmodeling tools for application to many scientific, engineering, and societal issues that can be adequately described only in terms of complexity and complex systems.

Examples of Grand Scientific Challenges which can be approached through complexity and systemsscience include: the structure, history and future of the universe; the biological basis of consciousness; the true complexity of the genetic makeup and molecular functioning of humans (genetics and epigenetics) and other life forms; human longevity limits; unification of the laws of physics; the dynamics and extent of climate change and the effects of climate change; extending the boundaries of and understanding the theoretical limits of computing; sustainability of life on the earth; workingsof the interior of the earth; predictability, dynamics and extent of earthquakes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters; dynamics of turbulent flows and the motion of granular materials; the structure of atoms as expressed in the Standard Model and the formulation of the Standard Model and gravity into a Unified Theory; the structure of water; control of global infectious diseases and also evolution and quantification of (ultimately) human cooperative behavior in politics, economics, business systems and social interactions. In fact, most of these issues have identified nonlinearities and are beginning to be addressed with nonlinear techniques – e. g. human longevity limits; the Standard Model; climate change, earthquake prediction, workings of the earth’s interior, natural disaster prediction, etc.

The complex systems mathematical and modeling tools and scientific and engineering applications that comprise the Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science are as follows:

Agent BasedModeling and Simulation
Applications of Physics and Mathematics to Social Science
Cellular Automata, Mathematical Basis of
Chaos and Complexity in Astrophysics
ClimateModeling, GlobalWarming andWeather Prediction
Complex Networks and Graph Theory
Complexity and Nonlinearity in Autonomous Robotics
Complexity in Computational Chemistry
Complexity in Earthquakes, Tsunamis, and Volcanoes, and Forecasting and Early Warning of their Hazards
Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience
Control and Dynamical Systems
Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
Ecological Complexity
Ergodic Theory
Finance and Econometrics
Fractals and Multifractals
Game Theory
Granular Computing
Intelligent Systems
Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations and Dynamical Systems
Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations
Percolation
Perturbation Theory
Probability and Statistics in Complex Systems
Quantum Information Science
Social Network Analysis
Soft Computing
Solitons
Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
Synergetics
System Dynamics
Systems Biology
TrafficManagement, Complex Dynamics of
Unconventional Computing
Wavelets


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