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Cognitive Neuroscience 4th Edition



Cognitive Neuroscience 4th Edition PDF

Author: Marie T. Banich

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Genres:

Publish Date: April 1, 2018

ISBN-10: 1316507904

Pages: 672

File Type: Epub

Language: English

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Book Preface

THE FOURTH EDITION of this book, although extensively revised, retains the spirit, organization, and many of the features of the first three editions. Like the earlier editions, it provides a systematic introduction to the neural basis of mental function. It includes state-of-the-art research from experimental work performed with humans and animals, as well as findings from clinical populations. The goal, as before, is to provide a balanced, synthesized, and integrated view of what we know both about the brain and about cognition. Simultaneously, the text aims to provide these views in accessible prose that will excite students to think critically about the potential of cognitive neuroscience to yield new insights.

While the entire text has been revised and updated, two sets of major changes are especially notable. First, the content of the book has been modified in line with the changing nature of the field. The introductory chapters have been reorganized to provide an integrated overview of the nervous system at both cellular and neuroanatomical levels in Chapter 1, followed by a new chapter on the historical development of cognitive neuroscience (Chapter 2). Two new chapters have been included, one on Social Cognition (Chapter 13) and another on Cognitive Neuroscience and Society (Chapter 17). The inclusion of these chapters reflects rapid expansions in new research in these subfields combined with awareness of the need for cognitive neuroscientists to address questions of societal interest. In addition, material on hemispheric specialization from prior editions has been integrated with coverage throughout the text, rather than parceled into a separate chapter as in prior editions. Second, the book has been revised to make the content more accessible to students. It has been rewritten to focus on major concepts and to present them, and the experiments that support them, in a way that makes the critical ideas clear to students without bogging them down in detail. Finally, recognizing the importance of visual elements in learning, the four-color art program has been completely revised with an expanded set of figures in every chapter.

In addition to these major changes, every chapter has been thoroughly updated to reflect current findings in the fast-growing field of cognitive neuroscience. While the current edition still includes findings from traditional methods, such as the study of brain-damaged patients, which have provided foundational knowledge to the field, we pay special attention to the integration of findings from a variety of newer approaches, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, diffusion tensor imaging, multi-voxel pattern analysis, and studies examining functional connectivity. Throughout, our intention is to provide students with a thorough and solid grounding in the basic principles and findings of cognitive neuroscience, tools that they can then use to further understand applied and clinical problems.

Text Organization and Features

The books soul remains very much the same as in the first three editions, as the following main features have been retained.

The book provides a systematic survey of the neural bases of a wide variety of mental functions

The overall organization of the book is divided into three main sections: fundamentals (Chapters 13), neural bases of specific mental functions (Chapters 413), and broader applications (Chapters 1417). The first part of the book, comprising the first three chapters, provides students with a basic foundation for the exploration of cognitive neuroscience. The first chapter provides information about the basic parts and divisions of the central nervous system and the fundamentals of neural transmission. This chapter may be unnecessary for students who have already completed a course in physiological psychology, but will be of use to students who have not. The second chapter outlines the historical milestones in the development of the field, with special attention to methodological and conceptual developments that advanced the field in different eras. The third chapter acquaints students with the myriad of burgeoning techniques, both standard and novel, that are available to scientists and clinicians in their quest to understand the neural bases of mental function.

The second part of the book, Chapters 4 through 13, provides a survey of the neural bases of mental function, with each chapter devoted to a distinct mental function. The chapter topics discussed are, in order, motor processes, early perceptual processing, object recognition, spatial cognition, language, memory, attention, executive function, emotion, and social cognition.

The last part of the book, comprising the last four chapters, examines broad-based applications in cognitive neuroscience, including development, aging, clinical syndromes, and the interface between neuroscience and society. Instructors may view these chapters as more discretionary than earlier ones, in the sense that they cover more advanced issues. In our teaching, weve found that these advanced, applied, and clinical issues are of special interest to many students, as they find it very rewarding to use the knowledge that they have gained earlier in the text to approach these broader applications. Chapter 14 examines mental conditions such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Chapter 15 examines neural plasticity from a lifespan perspective, including developmental changes during childhood, adolescence, and aging. In addition, it discusses recovery of function in children and in adults, and the neural bases of developmental disabilities. Chapter 16 examines syndromes that are characterized by generalized cognitive disorders (rather than the more localized and specific disorders discussed in Chapters 4 through 13), including closed head injury, dementia, demyelinating diseases, and epilepsy. Finally, the text ends with Chapter 17, Cognitive Neuroscience and Society, which critically examines the ways in which cognitive neuroscience knowledge can be applied to domains of broad societal concern such as education, social inequality, the law, and morality.

The sequence of the chapters is designed for progressive learning

The chapters have been carefully sequenced so that information in later chapters builds upon information in earlier ones. Notably, the processes most linked to motoric and sensory functions are presented earlier, and those that depend on more integrative aspects of brain function, such as executive function and emotion, are presented later. For example, the chapter on object recognition directly precedes that on spatial processing, so that the student is introduced to the ventral and dorsal visual processing streams in consecutive chapters. The chapter on memory is preceded by the language and object-recognition chapters so that the distinction between generalized memory disorders and the memory problems that are specific to certain domains (e.g., anomia in language or agnosia with regard to objects) is clear. Yet, despite the intentional progression of ideas across chapters, chapters are written to be self-contained so that instructors may alter the order of material depending on specific syllabus needs.

The book is designed to actively engage students in the process of learning

Most chapters begin with an opening case history to pique the students interest and preview issues that are discussed later in the chapter. For example, the opening case history in Chapter 4 discusses how Muhammad Alis boxing career led him to have a Parkinsonian disorder, and the opening case history in Chapter 16 discusses the mental decline of Maries maternal grandmother due to dementia. The text is written in a conversational tone rather than in a technical style, to grab the students interest and retain it. We use analogies extensively so that difficult conceptual issues can be presented in a tractable manner. Each chapter includes an In Focus box that explores in depth a specific applied issue in cognitive neuroscience, helping students to see the implications of research for everyday life.

To keep students oriented to terminology, key terms are introduced in boldface and defined in a glossary at the back of the book. Chapter summaries allow students to review the material learned or preview what is to be discussed, and outlines at the beginning of each chapter provide a clear conceptual structure of the contents. All these features are designed to make this book as user-friendly as possible.

State-of-the-art knowledge in the field is presented without sacrificing accuracy or oversimplifying the material

As researchers who maintain highly active and visible research programs, we are in a position to ensure that the book contains not only a discussion of the classic findings in the field, but also the cutting-edge portion of our knowledge. Never, however, are students overwhelmed with a laundry list of findings or with overly technical arcane issues. Rather, representative studies are used to highlight the nature of current debates, so that students can understand, and think critically about, the conceptual issues under consideration and how researchers attempt to reason based on experimental evidence. Our extensive work in both research and teaching in cognitive neuroscience allows us to present issues in a manner that is precise and sophisticated, yet also accessible and integrative.

Whats New in This Edition

While the approach of the prior editions has been retained, this fourth edition has nevertheless been extensively revamped. The main new additions are as follows.

The use of an integrated four-color art program

With this edition, we have thoroughly revised the art program, emphasizing systematic depiction of information across the figures, so as to enhance students ability to understand the material. All figures from earlier editions have been redrawn, and many new figures have been added. Some figures highlight regions of the brain so the reader can quickly see where and what in the brain are important. Other figures present data from representative studies in the field, so that students can gain experience in viewing and interpreting data; still others depict important experimental paradigms so that students can quickly grasp how a key study was conducted.

Addition of two new chapters

Two chapters have been added to the text to reflect growing areas of research over the last decade. A new stand-alone chapter covering social cognitive neuroscience (Chapter 13) is now included due to the burgeoning growth of research in this area. In the previous edition of the text, this material was relegated to a relatively short section of the chapter on Emotion. The new Social Cognition chapter addresses how new knowledge from neuroscience expands our understanding of how we perceive the mental states of other people, categorize people into social groups, and control our behavior to align with social norms.

In addition, completely new to this edition is Chapter 17, Cognitive Neuroscience and Society. This chapter, which concludes the book, covers issues of broader societal significance to which the field can speak. For example, the chapter addresses research on how laypeople view neuroscience research, what neuroscience may add to our understanding of the effects of social inequality on development, and how neuroscience knowledge is being used in criminal justice settings. As students of cognitive neuroscience enter a wide range of professions, such as law, education, and business, it is crucial for them to be able to critically evaluate what neuroscience can and cannot add to discussions of issues in these arenas.

Extensive updating of the material to incorporate the acceleration of knowledge in the field

The field of cognitive neuroscience continues to explode with new discoveries. As a result, all of the chapters of the book were extensively rewritten to incorporate this vast amount of additional knowledge, which is reflected in hundreds of new references from studies using diverse methodologies.

Contents

Preface
Acknowledgments
Dedication
Part IFundamentals
Chapter 1Introduction to the Nervous System
What Is Cognitive Neuroscience?
Basic Building Blocks of the Nervous System: Neurons and Glia
Neuroanatomical Terms and Brain Geography
Major Subdivisions of the Central Nervous System
Spinal Cord
Medulla: Control of Basic Functions
Cerebellum: Fluid Movement
Pons: A Connective Bridge
Midbrain: Orienting by Sound and Sight
Hypothalamus: Maintaining the Bodys Equilibrium
Thalamus: Gateway to the Cortex
Major Subcortical Systems: The Basal Ganglia and the Limbic System
Cerebral Cortex
A Closer Look at Neurons
Electrochemical Signaling in the Nervous System
Neurotransmitters
In Focus: Can Herbs Really Improve Your Memory, Attention, and Mood?
Myelination
A Closer Look at the Cerebral Cortex
Cytoarchitectonic Divisions
Primary Sensory and Motor Cortices
Association Areas
White-Matter Tracts
Summary
Chapter 2Historical Perspectives
Ancient Times Until the 1800s
The Twentieth Century: Heyday of the Lesion Method
Single-Case Versus Group Studies
Inferences That Can Be Drawn From the Lesion Method
Limitations of the Lesion Method
The 1960s, 70s, and 80s
Studies With Nonhuman Animals
In Focus: Discovery of the Homunculus
Electrophysiological Methods
Disconnection Syndromes
Split-Brain Studies
Hemispheric Specialization: Left Brain, Right Brain
In Focus: Left Out? Lateralization in Non-Right-Handers
The 1980s and 90s: The Advent of Brain Imaging
Anatomical Methods: Computerized Axial Tomography
Functional Methods: Positron Emission Tomography
The Twenty-First Century: The Brain Imaging Revolution
Summary
Chapter 3Methods
Introduction
Participant Populations
Clinical Populations
Neurologically Intact Individuals
Techniques for Analyzing Behavior
The Role of Cognitive Theories
Assessment of Behavior in Brain-Damaged Populations
Techniques for Assessing Brain Anatomy: Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI)
The Basics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Regional Brain Structure
Anatomical Connectivity
Techniques for Revealing Where in the Brain Activity Is Occurring
Neurochemical Methods: Positron Emission Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Oxygen-Related Methods: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
In Focus: Participating in a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
Electromagnetic Recording Methods
Electroencephalography
Event-Related Potentials
Magnetoencephalography
Optical Recording Methods
Techniques for Modulating Brain Activity
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)
Multilevel and Multi-Modal Approaches
Combining Computational and Neuroimaging Approaches
Summary
Part IINeural Bases of Mental Functions
Chapter 4Motor Control
Introduction
Peripheral Control of Movement
Motor Tracts
Brain Structures Involved in Motor Control
Subcortical Regions
Cortical Regions
Integrated Models of the Motor System
In Focus: Using Brain Activation to Control Prosthetic Limbs
Motor Disorders
Subcortical Motor Disorders
Cortical Motor Disorders
Summary
Chapter 5Sensation and Perception
The Retina
Photoreceptors
Ganglion Cells
Receptive Fields
Pathways From the Retina to the Brain
The Tectopulvinar Pathway
The Geniculostriate Pathway
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
Layers of the LGN
Retinotopic Mapping in the LGN
Feedback Connections to the LGN
Primary Visual Cortex (Striate Cortex)
Organization of Striate Cortex
Binocular Integration in Striate Cortex
Contextual Modulation of Cells in Striate Cortex
In Focus: Seeing Whats Not There: Visual Illusions and the Striate Cortex
Visual Areas Beyond the Striate Cortex
Multiple Maps of the Visual World
Area V4: A Special Module for Coding Color?
Blindsight and the Visual Pathways
Divergence into the What and Where Pathways
Auditory Processing
Computational Problems in Audition
Organization of the Auditory Pathways
Brainstem Computation of Spatial Location
Organization of Auditory Cortex
AuditoryVisual Interactions
Conclusions
Summary
Chapter 6Object Recognition
The What Ventral Visual System
Deficits in Visual Object Recognition
Apperceptive and Associative Agnosias
Prosopagnosia: Agnosia for Faces
Category-Specific Deficits in Object Recognition
Theoretical Issues in Visual Object Recognition
Sparse Versus Population Coding for Objects
The Problem of Invariance in Recognition
Feature-Based Versus Configural Coding of Objects
Category Specificity: Are Some Types of Stimuli More Special Than Others?
Object Recognition in Tactile and Auditory Modalities
Agnosias in Other Modalities
Tactile Object Recognition
Auditory Object Recognition
What Versus Where Across Modalities
In Focus: Visual Imagery: Seeing Objects With the Minds Eye
Summary
Chapter 7Spatial Cognition
The Dorsal Visual System for Spatial Cognition
Anatomy of the Dorsal Stream
Cellular Properties in the Dorsal Stream
Coding for the Three Dimensions of Space
Distinguishing Left from Right
Depth Perception
Spatial Frames of Reference
Neural Coding of Reference Frames
Dissociability of Reference Frames
Categorical Versus Coordinate Spatial Relations
Motion Perception
Specific Neural Regions for Motion Perception
Incorporating Knowledge of Self-Motion
Space and Action
Constructional Abilities
Optic Ataxia
Neural Mechanisms for Sensory-Motor Integration
Spatial Navigation
In Focus: Are Numbers Spatial?
Navigational Skills
Neural Coding of Spatial Environments
Challenges to the DorsalVentral Stream Dichotomy
Summary
Chapter 8Language
Brain Systems for Auditory Language
Classic Neurological Conceptions
Psycholinguistic Perspectives
Evidence From Double Dissociations
Language Processing From a Network Perspective
Visual Spoken Language
Basic Structure of American Sign Language (ASL)
Neural Organization of ASL
In Focus: Brain Organization in Bilinguals
Neurological Bases for Visual Language Processing
Evidence From Studies of Patients With Brain Damage
Converging Evidence from Other Research Methods
Processing of Non-Indo-European Languages and Other Symbolic Systems
Kana and Kanji
Music
Right-Hemisphere Contributions to Language Processing
Prosody
Semantics
Narrative, Inference, and Metaphor
Summary
Chapter 9Memory and Learning
What is Memory?
Hippocampal Damage Causes Amnesia, a Disorder of Long-Term Memory
Global Nature of the Deficit
Temporal Profile of Affected Memories
Spared Abilities
Multiple Memory and Learning Systems
What Distinguishes Memory Systems?
Memory and Consciousness
Nonhippocampal Regions Involved in Memory and Learning
Domain-Specific Neocortical Regions: Initial Processing and Subsequent Access
The Basal Ganglia: Skill Learning
The Amygdala: An Interface Between Memory and Emotion
Anterior Temporal Regions: Amodal Storage of Semantic Information
Brain Systems For Different Stages of Memory
Encoding: The Medial Temporal Lobe and Prefrontal Regions
Consolidation and Storage: How Critical Is the Hippocampus?
Retrieval: Hippocampal, Prefrontal, and Parietal Mechanisms
In Focus: Does Sleep Help You to Remember?
Working Memory: The Ability to Hold and Manipulate Information On-Line
Patients With Deficits in Working Memory
Studies With Nonhuman Animals: A Role for Prefrontal Cortex?
Insights From Neurologically Intact Individuals
The Relationships Between Memory Systems
Theoretical and Computational Reasons for Distinct Memory Systems
Interacting Memory Systems for Different Types and Stages of Learning
Summary
Chapter 10Attention
What Is Attention?
Brain Structures Mediating Arousal
Brain Structures Mediating Vigilance and Sustained Attention
Selective Attention
The Time Course of Attentional Selection
Brain Regions Mediating Selective Attention
Sources and Sites of Attentional Control
Neural Mechanisms of Selection: Biased Competition
Neural Bases of Divided Attention
In Focus: Pay Attention to the Road!
Network Models of Attentional Control
A Distributed but Overlapping Network
Altering, Orienting, and Executive Attention
Selection of Goals Versus Detection of Behaviorally Relevant Stimuli
The Default Network: The Lack of Attention or Internal Attention?
Hemineglect: Clinical Aspects
Clinical Features
Theories Regarding the Underlying Deficit
Treatment
Hemineglect: Implications for Understanding BrainBehavior Relationships
Attention Based on Objects
Hemispheric Differences in Attentional Control
Processing of Unattended Stimuli
Consciousness
Summary
Chapter 11Executive Function and Higher-Order Thinking
Theoretical Perspectives
Controlled Versus Automatic Processes
Goal-Centered Processing
Multifactor Models
Goal-Directed Behaviors
Initiation of Behavior
Creation and Maintenance of a Goal or Task Set
Sequencing and Planning
Shifting Set and Modifying Strategies
Self-Monitoring and Evaluation
Inhibition
In Focus: Can You Inhibit a Memory?
Higher-Order Thinking
Abstract and Conceptual Thinking
Rules and Inference
Response to Novelty
Judgment and Decision Making
Organization of the Brain for Executive Function
A Central Role for Working Memory in Executive Function
Summary
Chapter 12Emotion
Subcortical Contributions to Emotion
Fight-or-Flight Response
Fear and Emotional Learning
Reward and Motivation
In Focus: The Pleasure of Music
Cortical Contributions to Emotion
Representing Bodily Cues of Emotion
Integrating Emotion and Action
Incorporating Emotion into Decision Making
Regulating Emotion
Communicating and Interpreting Emotional Signals
Models of Emotional Experience
Summary
Chapter 13Social Cognition
Social Influence
Conformity
Social Norm Compliance
Understanding Other Minds
Imitation and Simulation
Theory of Mind
Empathy
Self Versus Other
Autism and Social Cognition
In Focus: The Pain of Rejection
Perceiving and Judging Social Groups
In-groupOut-group Effects
Stereotyping and Prejudice
Stereotype Threat
Summary
Part IIIBroader Applications
Chapter 14Psychopathology
Schizophrenia
Symptoms and Features
Frontal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Disruption in Functional Connectivity
What Causes Schizophrenia?
Implications for Treatment
Depression
Symptoms and Features
Frontal Lobe
Posterior Cortical Regions
Functional Connectivity Among Cortical Regions
Subcortical Regions
Therapeutic Interventions
In Focus: Can Your Genes Make You Unhappy?
Anxiety Disorders
Symptoms and Features
Amygdala and Hippocampus
Cortical Regions
Action Systems in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Substance Abuse and Addiction
Reward Pathways
Orbitofrontal Cortex
Other Brain Regions Implicated in Addiction
Conclusions and Caveats
Summary
Chapter 15Brain Development and Plasticity
Development of the Brain
Changes in the Brain During Childhood
Changes in the Brain During Adolescence
Influence of the Environment on the Developing Brain
Developmental Disorders
Intellectual Disability
Dyslexia
Autism
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Brain Plasticity in Adulthood
Recovery of Function Following Brain Damage
Neurophysiological Responses to Insult
Regional Mechanisms for Recovery of Function
Recovery of Function in Adults
Recovery of Function in Children
In Focus: Can Deprivation in One Sensory Modality Promote Extraordinary Abilities in Another?
Changes in the Brain With Aging
Cognitive Changes With Aging
Neural Changes With Aging
Slowing the Effects of Aging
Summary
Chapter 16Generalized Cognitive Disorders
Closed Head Injury
Etiology
Neuropsychological Consequences
Intervention
In Focus: Closed Head Injury and Sports
Dementing Diseases
Cortical Dementias
Subcortical Dementias
Mixed-Variety Dementias
Multiple Sclerosis
Epilepsy
Disorders of Conscious Awareness
Summary
Chapter 17Cognitive Neuroscience and Society
Public Perceptions of Neuroscience
Neuroscience and Education
Neuroscience and Social Inequality
Neuroscience and the Law
In Focus: Can Brain Imaging Detect Lies?
Neuroscience and Performance Optimization
Neuroscience and the Marketplace
The Neuroscience of Morality
Summary
Glossary
References
Index

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Epub December 16, 2020


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