Applied Fluid Mechanics 7th Edition
Book Preface
The objective of this book is to present the principles of fluid mechanics and the application of these principles to practical, applied problems. Primary emphasis is on fluid properties; the measurement of pressure, density, viscosity, and flow; fluid statics; flow of fluids in pipes and noncircular conduits; pump selection and application; openchannel flow; forces developed by fluids in motion; the design and analysis of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducts; and the flow of air and other gases.
Applications are shown in the mechanical field, including industrial fluid distribution, fluid power, and HVAC; in the chemical field, including flow in materials processing systems; and in the civil and environmental fields as applied to water and wastewater systems, fluid storage and distribution systems, and openchannel flow. This book is directed to anyone in an engineering field where the ability to apply the principles of fluid mechanics is the primary goal.
Those using this book are expected to have an understanding of algebra, trigonometry, and mechanics.
After completing the book, the student should have the ability to design and analyze practical fluid flow systems and to continue learning in the field. Students could take other applied courses, such as those on fluid power, HVAC, and civil hydraulics, following this course. Alternatively, this book could be used to teach selected fluid mechanics topics within such courses.
APPROACH
The approach used in this book encourages the student to become intimately involved in learning the principles of fluid mechanics at seven levels:
1. Understanding concepts.
2. Recognizing how the principles of fluid mechanics apply to their own experience.
3. Recognizing and implementing logical approaches to problem solutions.
4. Performing the analyses and calculations required in the solutions.
5. Critiquing the design of a given system and recommending improvements.
6. Designing practical, efficient fluid systems.
7. Using computerassisted approaches, both commercially available and selfdeveloped, for design and analysis of fluid flow systems.
This multilevel approach has proven successful for several decades in building students’ confidence in their ability to analyze and design fluid systems.
Concepts are presented in clear language and illustrated by reference to physical systems with which the reader should be familiar. An intuitive justification as well as a mathematical basis is given for each concept. The methods of solution to many types of complex problems are presented in stepbystep procedures. The importance of recognizing the relationships among what is known, what is to be found, and the choice of a solution procedure is emphasized.
Many practical problems in fluid mechanics require relatively long solution procedures. It has been the authors’ experience that students often have difficulty in carrying out the details of the solution. For this reason, each example problem is worked in complete detail, including the manipulation of units in equations. In the more complex examples, a programmed instruction format is used in which the student is asked to perform a small segment of the solution before being shown the correct result. The programs are of the linear type in which one panel presents a concept and then either poses a question or asks that a certain operation be performed. The following panel gives the correct result and the details of how it was obtained. The program then continues.
The International System of Units (Système International d’Unités, or SI) and the U.S. Customary System of units are used approximately equally. The SI notation in this book follows the guidelines set forth by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), U.S. Department of Commerce, in its 2008 publication The International System of Units ( SI ) (NIST Special Publication 330), edited by Barry N. Taylor and Ambler Thompson.
COMPUTERASSISTED PROBLEM SOLVING AND DESIGN
Computerassisted approaches to solving fluid flow problems are recommended only after the student has demonstrated competence in solving problems manually. They allow more comprehensive problems to be analyzed and give students tools for considering multiple design options while removing some of the burden of calculations. Also, many employers expect students to have not only the skill to use software, but the inclination to do so, and using software within the course effectively nurtures this skill. We recommend the following classroom learning policy.
Users of computer software must have solid understanding of the principles on which the software is based to ensure that analyses and design decisions are fundamentally sound. Software should be used only after mastering relevant analysis methods by careful study and using manual techniques.
Computerbased assignments are included at the end of many chapters. These can be solved by a variety of techniques such as:
■ The use of a spreadsheet such as Microsoft® Excel
■ The use of technical computing software
■ The use of commercially available software for fluid flow analysis Chapter 11 , Series Pipeline Systems, and Chapter 13 , Pump Selection and Application, include example Excel spreadsheet aids for solving fairly complex system design and analysis problems.
New, powerful, commercially available software: A new feature of this 7th edition is the integration of the use of a major, internationally renowned software package for piping system analysis and design, called PIPEFLO ® , produced and marketed by Engineered Software, Inc. (often called ESI) in Lacey, Washington. As stated by ESI’s CEO and president, along with several staff members, the methodology used in this textbook for analyzing pumped fluid flow systems is highly compatible with that used in their software.
Students who learn well the principles and manual problem solving methods presented in this book will be wellprepared to apply them in industrial settings and they will also have learned the fundamentals of using PIPEFLO ® to perform the analyses of the kinds of fluid flow systems they will encounter in their careers. This skill should be an asset to students’ career development.
Students using this book in classes will be informed about a unique link to the ESI website where a specially adapted version of the industryscale software can be used.
Virtually all of the piping analysis and design problems in this book can be set up and solved using this special version.
The tools and techniques for building computer models of fluid flow systems are introduced carefully starting in Chapter 8 on energy losses due to friction in pipes and continuing through Chapter 13 , covering minor losses, series pipeline systems, parallel and branching systems, and pump selection and application. As each new concept and problemsolving method is learned from this book, it is then applied to one or more example problems where students can develop their skills in creating and solving real problems. With each chapter, the kinds of systems that students will be able to complete expand in breadth and depth. New supplemental problems using PIPEFLO ® are in the book so students can extend and demonstrate their abilities in assignments, projects, or selfstudy. The integrated companion software, PUMPFLO ® , provides access to catalog data for numerous types and sizes of pumps that students can use in assignments and to become more familiar with that method of specifying pumps in their future positions.
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