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Anatomy & Physiology: An Integrative Approach 3rd Edition

Anatomy & Physiology: An Integrative Approach 3rd Edition PDF

Author: Michael McKinley, Valerie O'Loughlin

Publisher: McGraw Hill


Publish Date: January 5, 2018

ISBN-10: 1259398625

Pages: 1272

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

Human anatomy and physiology is a fascinating subject. However,  students can be overwhelmed by the complexity, the interrelatedness  of concepts from different chapters, and the massive amount of  material in the course. Our goal was to create a textbook to guide  students on a clearly written and expertly illustrated beginner’s path through the human body.

An Integrative Approach

One of the most daunting challenges that students face in  mastering concepts in an anatomy and physiology course is
integrating related content from numerous chapters. Understanding  a topic like blood pressure, for example, requires knowledge from  the chapters on the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and how these  structures are regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems.
The usefulness of a human anatomy and physiology text is  dependent in part on how successfully it helps students integrate  these related concepts. Without this, students are only acquiring  what seems like unrelated facts without seeing how they fit into  the whole.

To adequately explain such complex concepts to beginning students in our own classrooms, we as teachers present multiple topics  over the course of many class periods, all the while balancing these  detailed explanations with refreshers of content previously covered  and intermittent glimpses of the big picture. Doing so ensures that  students learn not only the individual pieces, but also how the pieces  ultimately fit together. This book represents our best effort to replicate this teaching process. In fact, it is the effective integration of  concepts throughout the text that makes this book truly unique from  other undergraduate anatomy and physiology texts.

Our goal of emphasizing the interrelatedness of body systems
and the connections between form and function necessitates a wellthought-out pedagogical platform to deliver the content.

First and  foremost, we have written a very user-friendly text with concise,  accurate descriptions that are thorough, but don’t overwhelm readers  with nonessential details. The text narrative is deeply integrated with  corresponding illustrations drawn specifically to match the textual  explanations. In addition, we have included a set of “Integrate” features that support our theme and work together to give the student a  well-rounded introduction to anatomy and physiology. Integrate:  Concept Overview figures are one- or two-page visual summaries  that aggregate related concepts in a big picture view. These comprehensive figures link multiple sections of a chapter together in a cohesive snapshot ideal for study and review. Integrate: Concept  Connections boxes provide glimpses of how concepts at hand will  play out in upcoming chapters, and also pull vital information from  earlier chapters back into the discussion at crucial points when relevant to a new topic. Integrate: Clinical View discussions apply  concepts from the surrounding narrative to practical or clinical contexts, providing examples of what can go wrong in the human body  to help crystallize understanding of the “norm.” Integrate: Learning  Strategy boxes infuse each chapter with practical study tips to understand and remember information. Learning strategies include mnemonics, analogies, and kinesthetic activities that students can perform  to relate the anatomy and physiology to their own bodies. Finally, the digital assets that accompany our book are tied to each section’s  learning objectives and previewed in the Integrate: Online Study Tools boxes at the end of each chapter.

Chapter Organization

In order to successfully execute an integrative approach,  foundational topics must be presented at the point when it matters  most for understanding. This provides students with a baseline of  knowledge about a given concept before it comes time to apply  that information in a more complex situation. Topics are thus  subdivided and covered in this sequence:
∙ Chapter 2: Atoms, Ions, and Molecules Most students  taking an A&P course have limited or no chemistry  background, which requires a textbook to provide a detailed,  organized treatment of atomic and molecular structure,  bonding, water, and biological macromolecules as a basis to  understanding physiological processes.
∙ Chapter 3: Energy, Chemical Reactions, and Cellular  Respiration ATP is essential to all life processes. A solid understanding of ATP furthers student comprehension of  movement of materials across a membrane, muscle  contractions, production of needed replacement molecules and  structures in cells, action potentials in nerves, pumping of the  heart, and removal of waste materials in the kidneys. This  textbook elevates the importance of the key concept of ATP  by teaching it early. We then utilize this knowledge in later  chapters as needed, expanding on what has already been  introduced rather than re-teaching it entirely.
∙ Chapter 13: Nervous System: Brain and Cranial Nerves  and Chapter 14: Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal  Nerves Instead of subdividing the nervous system  discussion into separate central nervous system (CNS) and  peripheral nervous system (PNS) chapters, nervous system  structures are grouped by region. Thus, students can integrate  the cranial nerves with their respective nuclei in the brain, and  they can integrate the spinal cord regions with the specific  spinal nerves that originate from these regions.
∙ Chapter 17: Endocrine System We have organized both  the endocrine system chapter and the specific coverage of the  many hormones released from endocrine glands to most  effectively and efficiently guide students in understanding  how this system of control functions in maintaining  homeostasis. Within the chapter on the endocrine system, we  provide an introduction and general discussion of the  endocrine system’s central concepts and describe selected  representative hormones that maintain body homeostasis.

Details of the actions of most other hormones—which require  an understanding of specific anatomic structures covered in  other chapters—are described in those chapters; for example,  sex hormones are discussed in Chapter 28: Reproductive  System. Learning the various hormones is facilitated by the  inclusion of a “template” figure for each major hormone; each  visual template includes the same components (stimulus, receptor, control center, and effectors) organized in a similar layout. In addition, information on each major hormone  described in this text can be quickly accessed in the summary  tables following chapter 17.
∙ Chapter 21: Lymphatic System and Chapter 22: Immune  System and the Body’s Defense A single chapter that discusses  both the lymphatic system and immune system is overwhelming  for most students. Thus, we separated the discussion into two  separate chapters. The lymphatic system chapter focuses on the  anatomic structures that compose the system, and provides a brief  functional overview of each structure. This allows us to provide a  thorough discussion and overview of the immune system in a  separate chapter, where we frequently reference and integrate  material from the earlier chapter.
∙ Chapter 29: Development, Pregnancy, and Heredity Coverage of heredity is included in the chapter on pregnancy  and human development as a natural extension of Chapter 28:  Reproductive System. This introduction will serve well as a  precursor for students who follow their A&P course with a genetics course

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