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Academic Vocabulary in Use Edition with Answers 2nd Edition



Academic Vocabulary in Use Edition with Answers 2nd Edition PDF

Author: Michael McCarthy and Felicity O'Dell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Genres:

Publish Date: February 12, 2016

ISBN-10: 9781107591660

Pages: 174

File Type: PDF

Language: English

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Book Preface

The authors wish to thank Helen Freeman, Chris  Capper and Sheila Dignen for their invaluable  intellectual and editorial support during the  course of the preparation of this new edition. We must also thank the lexicography and  computational team at Cambridge University  Press whose work with the Cambridge  International Corpus, the Cambridge Learner  Corpus and the CANCODE corpus of spoken  English (developed at the University of  Nottingham in association with Cambridge  University Press), enabled us to make a fully  corpus-informed selection of the academic  vocabulary we focus on in these materials. We acknowledge with gratitude the pioneering  work on academic word lists done by Averil  Coxhead. In planning this book we made  considerable use of her lists at http://www. victoria.ac.nz/lals/resources/academicwordlist/ We also acknowledge the work of Annette Capel  and the English Vocabulary Profile. The EVP  enabled us to select vocabulary appropriate to the level.

Michael McCarthy and Felicity O’Dell Development of this publication has made use  of the Cambridge English Corpus, a multi-billion  word collection of spoken and written English.  It includes the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a  unique collection of candidate exam answers.  Cambridge University Press has built up the  Cambridge English Corpus to provide evidence  about language use that helps to produce better  language teaching materials.

The authors and publishers acknowledge the  following sources of copyright material and  are grateful for the permissions granted. While  every effort has been made, it has not always  been possible to identify the sources of all the  material used, or to trace all copyright holders.  If any omissions are brought to our notice,  we will be happy to include the appropriate  acknowledgements on reprinting and in the next  update to the digital edition, as applicable. New Scientist for the text on p. 25 adapted from  ‘Simulator could predict where epidemics will  strike next’, New Scientist, 30.03.2006. Copyright  © 2006 Reed Business Information UK. All  rights reserved. Distributed by Tribune Media  Services; Scientific American for the text on p.  27 adapted from ‘Shutting Down Alzheimers’ by  Michael S. Wolfe, Scientific American. Reproduced  with permission. Copyright © (2006) Scientific  American, Inc. All rights reserved; Nature  Publishing Group for the text on p. 39 adapted  from ‘Abridged Extract timing is life and death’,  Nature, Vol 441, no. 7089, 04.05.2006. Copyright  © 2006 Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced  with permission; Text on p. 110 adapted from J.  Anderson, Colorado State University Extension  foods and nutrition specialist and professor; S.  Perryman, CSU Extension foods and nutrition  specialist; L. Young, former foods and nutrition  graduate student; and S. Prior, former graduate  intern, food science and human nutrition.  Reviewed and revised, July, 2015 by Colorado  State University Jessica Clifford, Research  Associate and Extension Specialist and K.  Maloney, graduate student in the Dept. of Food  Science Human Nutrition; Dunedin Academic  Press Ltd for the text on p. 111 adapted from  ‘Introducing the planets and their moons’ by  Peter Cattermole. Reproduced with permission  from Cattermole Introducing the Planets and  their Moons (Dunedin, Edinburgh, 2014); Text on  p. 112 adapted from David Crystal, The Cambridge  Encyclopedia of Language 2nd Edition, 1997, ©  David Crystal 1997, published by Cambridge  University Press, adapted and reproduced with  permission of the author and publisher; Scientific  American for the text on p. 113 adapted from  ‘A Chronicle of timekeeping’ by William J. H.  Andrews, Scientific American, Vol 23. Reproduced  with permission. Copyright © (2014) Scientific  American, Inc. All rights reserved; Text on p. 114  adapted from Patricia A. Baker, The Archaeology  of Medicine in the Greco-Roman World, 2013, ©  Patricia A. Baker 2013, published by Cambridge  University Press, adapted and reproduced with  permission of the author and publisher; Text on  p. 115 adapted from ‘Seeing Things Differently’  by Shaaron Ainsworth, RSA Journal, Issue 2.  Copyright © 2014 RSA Journal. Reproduced with  permission of Shaaron Ainsworth.

To the student and the teacher

Who is this book for?

This book is for anyone who wants or needs to learn the kind of English which is used in  academic contexts. It deals with the language used in written works such as textbooks and  journal articles as well as with the spoken language of lectures and seminars. It also presents  vocabulary relating to being a student at a university or college in that it covers topics relating to  university life. It will be particularly useful for students preparing for IELTS, the Pearson Academic  English Test or any other examination aimed at assessing whether candidates’ English is at a  high enough level to study in an institution where English is the medium of instruction. It will be  helpful for people who need to attend – or indeed give – lectures or presentations in English or to  participate in international conferences. It will enable students who have to prepare assignments  or write up a dissertation in English to do so in a much more natural and appropriate way.

What kind of vocabulary does the book deal with?

The book presents and practises the kind of vocabulary that is used in academic contexts  regardless of which discipline you are specialising in. So it considers words and expressions  like concept, put forward a theory and come to a conclusion. It does not deal with the specialist  vocabulary of any particular subject such as anatomy or physics. Specialist terms are often  relatively easy to master – they will be explained and taught as you study the subject and indeed  these words may sometimes be similar in English and your own language. However, it is the more  general vocabulary used for discussing ideas and research and for talking and writing about  academic work that you need to be familiar with in order to feel comfortable in an academic  environment. Despite the fact that such vocabulary items are much more frequent than specialist  vocabulary, they are often felt to be more difficult to learn. It is, therefore, useful to approach  them in the systematic way suggested by this book.

One positive aspect of academic vocabulary is that there are relatively few differences, depending  on whether you are studying in London or New York, Delhi or Sydney, Johannesburg, Dublin,  Wellington, Toronto or Singapore or indeed any other place where you may be using English for  academic purposes. Academic English tends to be a truly international language and the units of  the book focus on vocabulary that will be essential for you regardless of where you are studying  now or where you may be likely to study in the future. There are some differences between words  used to describe people and places and these are highlighted in Unit 19. Reference sections 3 and  4 also focus on some vocabulary and spelling variations. In the units of the book we use British  English spelling conventions, except when quoting texts which originally used American spellings. Much of the vocabulary used in the book is neutral in that it is equally appropriate in both written  and spoken contexts. We indicate those instances where a word is too formal to be used in  speech or too informal to use in academic writing.

How was the vocabulary for the book selected?

The academic vocabulary focused on in this book was all selected from language identified as  significant by the Cambridge International Corpus of written and spoken English and also the  CANCODE corpus of spoken English developed at the University of Nottingham in association with  Cambridge University Press. These enormous corpora include large collections of written and  spoken academic text and so it was possible to identify language that is distinctive for academic  contexts. We also made considerable use of the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a corpus of more  than 60 million words of text taken from hundreds of thousands of learner scripts from students  taking Cambridge English exams all over the world. From this corpus we were able to learn what  kinds of errors students taking, for example, IELTS, were typically making. In planning this book we made considerable use of Averil Coxhead’s work on developing  academic wordlists. Her lists can be found at, for example, http://www.uefap.com/vocab/select/ awl.htm

How is the book organised?

Each unit consists of two pages. The left-hand page presents the academic vocabulary to be  focused on in the unit. You will usually find words and expressions presented in context with,  where appropriate, any special notes about their meaning and usage. The right-hand page  checks that you have understood the information on the presentation page by giving you a  series of exercises to complete.

The units are organised into different sections: The book begins with a Unit Zero called Before  you start. The first section then includes nine units which look at basic aspects of academic  vocabulary such as what is special about academic vocabulary, key verbs and key quantifying  expressions. The second section devotes eight units to how words typically combine with  one another in academic English. The third section has six units focusing on aspects of life in  academic institutions. The fourth section provides four units considering aspects of planning  and starting a piece of work and the fifth consists of five units relating to thinking and  interacting. The sixth section has six units dealing with ways of talking about different concepts  such as numbers, time and cause and effect. The seventh section includes twelve units covering
aspects of the organisation and presentation of ideas.

Towards the end of the book you will find six reading texts relating to different academic  disciplines with exercises based on the vocabulary in those texts. We hope you will find these  useful examples of how to use texts to expand your knowledge of academic vocabulary in  English and would recommend that you read these texts and do the exercises on them even if  they relate to an academic subject that is very different from your own.

There are five reference sections dealing with some key areas where we felt it would be useful  for you to have lists of items that could not be presented as fully in the main body of the book,  i.e. Formal and informal academic words and expressions, Numbers, units of measurement  and common symbols, British and North American academic vocabulary, Spelling variations  and Word formation. Where appropriate, these reference sections provide space for you to add  further examples of your own.

At the end of the book there is a Key with answers to all the exercises and an Index of all the  key words and expressions, indicating the units where they can be found. The pronunciation is  provided for standard British English.

Do Unit Zero first followed by Unit 1 What is special about academic English? Then work  through the remaining units in any order that suits you.

So, good luck with your work on academic English. We hope that the materials in this book will  help you to enjoy and to benefit fully from your studies. We hope that you will be able to share  ideas in a creative, exciting way with scholars from all over the world and we wish you the very  best for a successful and rewarding academic life.


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